ISSN: 1815-2058

Volume 30, Issue 1

Volume 30, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2015, Page 1-97


Checklists of crustaceans of freshwater and marine fishes of Basrah Province, Iraq.

A.H. Ali; F.T. Mhaisen; N.R. Khamees

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-32

Reviewing the literature on all the crustaceans parasitizing freshwater and marine fishes of Basrah province, Iraq indicated the presence of 74 crustacean taxa. Sixty-five taxa belonged to the class Maxillopoda while nine taxa belonged to the class Malacostraca. All these crustaceans were adults living on the external surface of their fish hosts while three taxa were reported as larvae. Fifty-five species of such crustaceans were recorded from marine localities, 11 from freshwater localities and the remaining were from both freshwater and marine localities. The total number of crustacean species recorded for each fish host species fluctuated from a minimum of one crustacean species in 31 fish hosts to a maximum of 15 crustacean species in Chelon subviridis only. Number of fish hosts reported for these crustaceans fluctuated from one host in case of 45 crustacean species to a maximum of 18 hosts in case of praniza larvae of Gnathia sp.

Diagnosis and ecological distribution of aquatic (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in Sullein marsh in Basrah, South of Iraq.

D.K. Kareem; A.A.Z.S. Al-Edani

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 33-46

Present study was done during the period between April 2012 and March 2013 in Sullein Marsh, Basrah South of Iraq. Results recorded four families, four genera and four species of hemipteran insects community in different seasons. The families are Corixidae included the species Sigara lateralis (Leach, 1817), Macrovellidae included the species Macrovelia hornii (Uhler, 1872), Pleidae included the species Plealeachi (McGregor and Kirkaldy, 1899) and Mesovillidae included two species Mesovelia vittigera (Horvath, 1895) (apterous) and M. vettigera (macropterous). Some physico-chemical parameters were measured, such as air and water temperatures, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and concentration of heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Cu, Zn) in water. Analysis showed that air and water temperatures correlated with distribution of aquatic Hemiptera, the highest numbers of insects were collected in Winter months and lowest numbers collected in Summer months, the maximum rate of air temperature was 41 ºC in July and the minimum was 13 ºC in January, the maximum and the minimum rates of water temperatures were 32 ºC and 7 ºC in the same months, the maximum range of DO was 11 mg/l in January and the minimum was 8 in July, the maximum concentration of salinity was 3.3 g/l in July and the minimum was 2.8 g/l in January and February. About pH the maximum range was 8.2 in January and the minimum was 7.4 in June and July. Maximum concentration of Fe, Pb, Cu and Zn were 215.01, 22.78, 18.54 and 223.14 μg/l respectively in July.

Groundwater quality and origin within Dibdibba aquifer near Jabel Sanam area southern of Basrah Governorate, Iraq.

M.K. Al-Tememi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 47-56

The study aims at assessing the groundwater quality and identify of its origin within Dibdibba aquifer (Jabel Snam area) south of Basrah. Twenty well has been selected from the studied area were subjected to comprehensive physical and chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), anions (HCO3-, Cl- and SO42-) and trace elements (Zn, Cd, Ni and Pb) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS and total hardness). The spatial distribution of parameters were drawin using geostotistic interpolation technique namely ordinag Kriging in Arc GIS 10.2.2. Based on the results the groundwater quality was classified to chloride group-sodium family-type (Na+ >Ca2+ >Mg2+). On the other hand, the groundwater origin investigate by Sullin diagram which showed old meteoric origin for all studied wells.

Morphological and taxonomic study of eggs of some fish families with a reference to their abundance in the North West of Arabian Gulf.

M.T.K. Al-Okailee

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 57-66

Sampling of eggs of fish was conducted at two stations in the northwestern part of Arabian Gulf (Shatt Al-Arab estuary (A1) and Khor Amaya (A2)), during April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 2902 fish eggs were collected using conical plankton net (mesh size 330µm). Six families (Sciaenidae, Clupeidae, Soleidae, Polynemidae, Engraulidae and Ariidae) of fish eggs were identified. Sciaenid fish egg comprised 45.6 % of all eggs collected and peak of abundance (1680.3 egg/10m²) at station A2 was occurred in May. Water temperature was ranged from 13-34ºC and salinity was 32-42 ‰. Water temperature seems to be the most vital factor in determining the onset of the spawning of fish in the Arabian Gulf. This study showed the importance of the northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf as a spawning and nursery site for the Sciaenidae, Clupeidae, Soleidae, Polynemidae, Engraulidae and the Ariidae.

Ecological study of zooplankton in the Shatt Al-Basrah canal, Basrah-Iraq.

M.F. Abbas

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 67-80

Seasonal abundance and distribution of Zooplankton were studied at three stations in the Shatt Al-Basrah canal, during the period from 2 April 2011 to 2 January 2012. The lowest value of zooplankton density recorded was 5 ind./m3 at station one in winter 2012, and the highest was 621200 ind./m3 at station three in spring 2011. Rotifera were dominated the zooplankton community (55%), followed by Copepoda (27%) then by Cirripede larvae (13%). Water temperatures, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and turbidity were measured at each station, as well as some ecological indices were calculated. Water temperature ranged from 12 to 33.2 ºC at stations one and three, respectively. Salinity values changed from 15.6 to 35.1 psu at stations one and three respectively with a decline in spring and an increase in summer. pH values were on the alkaline side, dissolved oxygen varied from 2.53 to 8.7 mg/l in spring and autumn at stations three and one, respectively. The maximum diversity index value was 0.7 at station one, richness index values was 0.54 at station three and evenness index value was 0.87 at station two. Higher similarity was obtained between stations 1 and 3 and lower value recorded between stations 2 and 3.

Sub-Bottom Profiler and Side Scan Sonar investigations, with the assistance of hydrochemical and isotopic analysis of Sawa Lake, Al-Muthana Governorate, Southern Iraq.

W.M. Al-Mosawi; M.K. Al-Tememi; H.B. Ghalib; N.A. Nassar

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 81-97

A marine geophysical survey are including Sub Bottom Profilers and Side Scan Sonar integrating with under-water imagery, as well as hydrochemical and isotopic investigations have been carried out for Sawa Lake, one of the unique, shallow and closed water body in Iraq. The results showed that the depth of the Lake is shallow, ranged between 1 m in areas near the edges of the Lake and 2 m in the Lake center. The Recharge site has been detected exactly (this is a first recording (Nov. 2012)), as a hole. It has a longitudinal an axis of 50 m with NW-SE tren, which resembles the trending of the longitudinal axis of the Lake and Abu-Jir fault trending. The maximum width of this hole ranging from 23.0-29.5 m. The hole depth about 20 m, but may be greater then, because the emergence of a high proportion of noise in the geophysical sections. The Lake bottom is homogeneity and does not has any diacritical features. Also, the results showed discontinuous layers on either side of the hole due to the existance a number of caves under the bottom of the Lake extends into several meters with different dimensions and forms. Hydrochemical analysis of the water samples collected from different depths inside the hole by scientific diving with specefic equibments and the result showed that the water is NaCl type, with domination of Mg and Cl over Ca and SO4. The Stiff diagram, detected that very high TDS arising mainly from sodium and chloride, it is mostly typical marine water. Values of δ18O and δ2H in water samples of Sawa Lake, when plotted along the global meteoric water line shows that the three collected water samples from the lake, which have a similar isotopic composition, indicating that all of them are receiving water from the same flow zones, with diffuse recharge type. Also, the isotopic parameter showed that the Sawa lake water suffering from strong evaporation.