About Journal

Formerly: Marina Mesopotamica ; Publisher: Marine Science Centre, University of Basrah ; Founded: 1982 ; ISSN: 1815-2085 ; Language: English and Arabic ; Paper Size: 185 x 227 mm ; Issues: Two per annum ; Number of articles: Approximately Ten per issue ; Abbreviated Title: Mesopot. J. Mar. Sci.##### Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science (MJMS)publishes full-length articles, short communications and reviews in English and Arabic language. Applied science papers are especially welcomed. Manuscripts submitted are read critically by at least two peers selected by the editorial board.
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Journal Information

Publisher: Basrah University

Email:  mjms.msc@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Ali A.Z. Douabul

ISSN: 1815-2058

Bioaccumulation test of cadmium and magnesium in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus via Scanning electron microscope.

M.A. Aldoghachi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 56-63

In this present study, the bioaccumulation of heavy metal, cadmium (Cd) and major element magnesium (Mg), in the liver tissues of Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated after exposing the fish over 96 h period to Cd LC50 (0.8 mg/l) and Mg LC50 (3.03 mg/l). These tissues were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopic X-ray microanalysis of fish liver exposed to Cd or Mg confirmed that these metals were accumulated in liver tissues.

Diversity, abundance and community structure of fishes in the lower part of the Euphrates River Southern Iraq.

A.H.J. Abdullah

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 64-77

Diversity, abundance and community structure of fish species in the lower part of the Euphrates River was investigated during May 2016 to April 2017. Three stations were selected to conduct the work. Monthly variance of water temperature ranged from 11ºC in January and February to 31ºC in August, turbidity differs from 2.31 in June to 24.10 NTU in November. The overall values of hydrogen-ion differ from 7.52 in April to 8.27 in November and December. The overall values of salinity in the work area were 0.91 ‰ in October to 1.52 ‰ in May. Several fishing methods were used to collect the samples of fishes. A total of 4380 specimens' of fish were collected included 23 fish species belonging to 23 genera and 11 families, ten of them represented native fish species, eight alien fish species and five marine species. Oreochroims aureus was the most abundance species formed 34.27 % of the total number then Liza abu (24.66 %) of the total number of species and Carassius gibelo (14.36 %). Values of three dominate species (D3) was 73.29 %. The mean values of diversity index (H) in the study area ranged from 1.11 to 1.92, evenness index (J) from 0.53 to 0.90 and richness index (D) from 1.15 to 2.33. The study showed the dominance of small species of exotic and native fish in the study area and the scarcity of large economic species due to the overfishing.

Phytoremediation in Removing Selected Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions.

F.H. Ibrahim

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 78-87

Bioaccumulation of Ulothrix zonate was compared for cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc removal at various concentrations and contact time. The results of the present investigation showed that the lowest amount of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn was adsorbed when the initial heavy metal concentration was 10 ppm whereas Cd showed highest concentration at 20 ppm and Cu exhibited greatest removal at 30 ppm. The metals Ni and Zn exhibited highest removal at 40 ppm. The value of Freundlich model constant (1/n) for different metals ranged from 0.334 to 0.721 and the values of Langmuir separation factor values (RL) varied between 0.111 and 0.722 which indicated favorable bio-sorption by the biomass of the algae. The order of metals uptake was found to be Ni>Zn>Cu>Cd. The finding of the study showed that U. zonate has much potential as a biosorbent for the sorption of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn and indicated that the metal uptake was concentration-independent for Cd and Zn whereas for Cu and Ni an increase in initial metal concentration resulted in higher metal uptake. This present study leads the way for the future studies on the use of algae as a cheap bio-adsorbent for heavy metals removal in Iraq which is suffering from huge inland waste water.

Assessment of the ecological quality of soft-bottom benthic communities in the Syrian coast, Eastern Mediterranean.

I. Ammar; Ch. Hussein

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 95-108

The present study was aimed to evaluate several benthic biological indices to assess the ecological quality status of marine environments in Syria. Samples were obtained from four different areas of Syrian coast (Al-Bassit, Banias, Tartous and Al-Hamidia) on a monthly scale from March 2007 to December 2007. Results showed that the percentage of benthic species are increased significantly in the stations with healthy ecological status. The cluster analysis and the MDS have shown that the studied stations are subjected to environmental disturbance. Some species have been found to be more sensitive (high values of Hurlbert Index) than others such as the Rhinoclavis kochi, which belonged to the Gastropodes taxa and Notomastus latericeus belonged to the polychaetes taxa. The ecological quality of the Syrian coast was assessed using three biotic indices (H′, AMBI and BQI). The Shannon–Wiener index H′ was ranged from 2.88 to 5.39. Thus, the ecological status varied between moderate and high. The values of AZTI Marine Biotic Index (AMBI) and Benthic Quality Index (BQI) classified the ecological state between high and good (slight disturbance).

Life history studies on the damselfly Sympecma paedisca Brull (Odonata: Lestidae) in a shallow pond in Garmat-Ali, Basrah.

M.R. Annon

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 297-310

Life history of Sympecma paedisca Brull has been investigated in a combined field and laboratory study. The field study is conducted a shallow pond in Garmat-Ali, Basrah in the period from October 1997 to September 1998. Some environmental factors such as temp., D.O., PH. and salinity were measured. The field results indicate that the life cycle is univoltine, however this species is unique in that it does not enter nymphal diapause. Emergence is rather an unsynchronized and dispersed temporally. Sexual maturation requires four weeks. Oviposition site is potamogeton. The laboratory study revealed that incubation period was 14 days at 27 ºC. The nymphal stage includes twelve instars and requires 252.5 days for completion the development. The whole life cycle requires 266.5 days.

The impact of high alkali media on the biochemical compositions of two hydrophytes; Lemna minor L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. from Shatt Al-Arab River, Basrah-Iraq.

K.K. Haraib

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 131-138

Abstract - The present work aims at understanding the effect of high alkali media on the biochemical composition of two hydrophytes; Lemna minor L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. Each of these two hydrophytes was planted in 4-one liter glass containers of pH 7.5, 8.5, 9.5 and 10.5 under laboratory conditions. Samples were taken after two weeks for physico-chemical parameters and tissue (protein, fat and ash) analysis. The results show that the highest protein contents (34.81 %, 34.66 %) were found in the control medium of L. minor, in C. demersum at pH 7.5. The least protein content was 21.45% in L.minor at pH 9.5. As to the fat contents the highest value (7.50 %) was recorded in L. minor at pH 9.5, while the least one was 1.181% in L. minor at pH 10.5. The highest ash content of C. demersum was 19.88 % at pH 10.5 and the least was 11.93% at the control. High pH showed negative impact on protein content of the two aquatic plants. The protein was reduced as the pH value elevates, but at pH 10.5 the protein content rised again. As for fat content, increasing pH caused increasing of fat in L. minor and its decreasing in C. demersum except pH 10.5 at which the fat comes up again in reverse to the former plant. The ash content of L. minor was fluctuating, whereas in C. denersum, the increasing of pH value caused increasing of ash content.

N – alkanes in molluscs of Shatt Al-Arab river.

W.A. Farid; H.T. Al-Saad; A.H.Y. Al-Adhub

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 83-98

Abstract This study comprises monitoring of the n-alkanes in the Shatt Al-Arab river by using the seven molluscs species as bioindicators. These species are: snails Lymnaea auricularia, Theodoxus jordani, Physa acuta, Melanopsis nodosa, and Melanoides tuberculata and bivalves Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula fluminalis. The species of molluscs are collected from different locations of the Shatt Al-Arab river (along the region extended from Abu Al-Khasib to Garmat-Ali) during 2004 and 2005. Each species consisted of at least 3500 adult of individuals of uniform sizes. The hydrocarbons from these species were extracted and analyzed both by spectroflurometer (total hydrocarbons) and high resolution capillary gas chromatography (n-alkanes). The concentrations of total hydrocarbons in mollusc’s species of the Shatt Al-Arab river ranged from 1.93 μg/g dry weight in T. jordani to 26.56 μg/g dry weight in C. fluminea. The range of carbon chain length of n-alkanes in these individuals was ranging from C13 - C32. The bimodal distribution with two maxima around C17 and C27 suggested two different sources of hydrocarbons both biogenic and anthropogenic. The dominance of the odd carbon numbers n-alkanes (C15, C17, C25 and C29) in the mollusc’s species indicated biogenic origin of hydrocarbons .The pristane values were more than those of phytane. Pristane and phytane in the mollusc’s species suggest biogenic origin. CPI values are more than one indicating a biogenic origin of hydrocarbons in these species. Squalane is also present in some these species intimately related to anthropogenic sources of hydrocarbons. The presence of Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM) reflects the anthropogenic sources. The lower fat contents were found in T. jordani (0.33 mg/g) and the higher were in C. fluminea (0.98 mg/g). A significant relationship is found between the fat contents and hydrocarbons concentrations in the tissues of molluscs species (r = 0.8 - 0.9).

Recent Ostracoda in the Cuddalore estuary, East coast of Tamil Nadu, India.

H. Achyuthan; A. Hameed

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 181-195

The paper reports for the first time Holocene estuary Ostracoda assemblages from three localities in Cuddalore east coast of Tamil Nadu, Chennai, India. In all, thirteen taxa recorded and illustrated. Of these, Keijella reticulata, Actinocythereis scutigera, Loxoconcha mandviensis, Propontocypris (Propontocypris) crocata are being reported for the first time from India in Cuddalore.

Distribution and abundance of Hilsa, Tenualosa ilisha larvae in the Shatt Al-Arab River and East Al-Hammar Marsh.

K.H. Younis; F.M. Mutlak; M.T.K. Al-Okailee

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 75-84

The larvae of Tenualosa ilisha were surveyed in the present research at four stations in the Shatt Al-Arab River and East Al-Hammar marsh. The study was conducted from April 2013 to March 2014. Water temperature was ranged from 12°C in December to 38 °C in July at all stations. Salinity was changed from 9.35‰ in October to 36 ‰ in August at station A, while salinity changed was from 1.03 ‰ - 3.5 ‰ at stations B, C and D. A total of 185 T. ilisha larvae (5.0-20 mm TL.) were collected. Higher number of T. ilisha larvae was recorded at station C (88), comprised 47.56 % of the total fishes larvae collected, and the lowest number (23) was from station A, comprised 12.43 % of the total fishes larvae collected. T. ilisha larvae were found in the study region during eighth month of the year, from March to October. The highest abundance of larvae at station C in March was 3.28 larvae/10 m², and lowest was 0.14 larvae/10 m² at station D in April. Water temperature showed a significant positive correlations with abundance of T. ilisha larvae at stations A, B, C and D (r = 0.833, o.692, 0.890, 0.616 p < 0.05 respectively). While, the salinity showed negative correlations with abundance of T. ilisha larvae at stations A (r = -0.700, p < 0.05), and a weak negative correlations with stations B, C and D (r = -0.523, -0.455, -0.470 p < 0.05 respectively). The results sh0wed that Shatt Al-Arab river and East Al-Hammar marsh play a vital role in T. ilisha reproduction, may urgent plan need to it protect the spawning and nursery ground for larvae of this species.

Study on nitrogen metabolism of the algae Chlorella sp. isolated from Shatt Al-Arab, Basrah, Iraq.

M.S.A. Al-Asadi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 355-372

Nitrogen metabolism of Chlorella sp., isolated from Shatt Al-Arab River, was studied for four days, in a nutrient media. In this experiment, different sources of nitrogen were used, with or without different ketoacids (pyruvic acid,œ-ketoglutaric acid and oxaloacetic acid). It was found that the Chlorella cells could absorb nitrate with pyruvic acid more than that of ammonia and urea with other ketoacids (œ-ketoglutaric acid and oxaloacetic acid). No effect on N-absorbent or dry weight was observed during urea feeding with or without ketoacids. The alga gives more yields when fed with ammonia, with or without pyruvic acid, than that of nitrate in the same conditions. The nitrate media slightly turn to the acidity, the ammonia media turn to alkalinity, while no effect in case of urea.

Descriptive and comparative osteology of five cyprinid fishes from Southern Iraq.

A.H.J. Abdullah

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 159-168

Descriptive and comparison osteology was conducted in the present research for five species of cyprinid fishes during the period from June to September 2016 of some paired head bones for premaxilla, maxilla, lower Jaw and opercular. A total of 111 specimens were collected by electrofishing from Huwaza and Chybiyesh marshes Southern Iraq include: Carasobarbus luteus, Carassius gibelio, Cyprinus carpio, Leuciscus vorax and Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi. Results showed the significant differences (P<0.05) among bones of species which were described and compared in both intergeneric and interspecific. Statistical analysis was done for all bones. Coefficient of determination (r2) showed a strength correlation of the linear association between standard length and length of premaxilla, maxilla, dentary, angloluarticular and opercular of L. vorax (0.973, 0.89, 0.976, 0.95 and 0.986) respectively. The present study revealed new information about the phylogeny of cyprinids by evident the differences among species in the shape and design of bones, which was rise to isolate it in different genera, but there was convergence in general shape to join it in one family.

Impact of toluene on ionic regulation and oxygen consumption of freshwater crab Sesarma boulengeri (Calman).

Raja M. Al-Yaseen; Amna A. Hashim; Sumaya M. Ahmed

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 147-166

The present study has been conducted to explain the effect of sub lethal concentrations of toluene on some physiological aspects of freshwater crab S. boulengeri including oxygen consumption rate, water and ionic regulation, bioaccumulation and histopathological effects. Three sub lethal concentrations (2.5, 5.5 and 10.5 ppm) of toluene were used to study their effects during long term exposure (14 days) under 28° C. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between oxygen consumption rate and toluene concentration. Oxygen consumption rate reached to 0.223 mg O2/g/h in 10.5 ppm toluene. Body water content showed an increase to 71.17% in 10.5 ppm toluene. Ionic regulation also affected by toluene. A significant decrease (P<0.01) was recorded in the level of Na+ in the haemolymph, as it reached to 245.5 mmol/l in 10.5 ppm toluene. While K+ concentration in the lymph showed a significant increase (P<0.01) to 12.41 mmol/l comparing with the control. Bioaccumulation of toluene in the gills in 5.5 ppm toluene reached to 2.98 mg/g dry wt. during the 3rd day of exposure. While it decreased to 1.34 mg/g dry wt. during the 11th day of exposure. Histopathological changes include swelling, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy in gill filaments. Recovery data after 4 days of transfer to clean water showed that the physiological parameters studied (oxygen consumption rate, water and ionic regulation) did not return to the normal levels.

Life history studies on the damselfly Sympecma paedisca Brull (Odonata: Lestidae) in a shallow pond in Garmat-Ali, Basrah.

M.R. Annon

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 297-310

Life history of Sympecma paedisca Brull has been investigated in a combined field and laboratory study. The field study is conducted a shallow pond in Garmat-Ali, Basrah in the period from October 1997 to September 1998. Some environmental factors such as temp., D.O., PH. and salinity were measured. The field results indicate that the life cycle is univoltine, however this species is unique in that it does not enter nymphal diapause. Emergence is rather an unsynchronized and dispersed temporally. Sexual maturation requires four weeks. Oviposition site is potamogeton. The laboratory study revealed that incubation period was 14 days at 27 ºC. The nymphal stage includes twelve instars and requires 252.5 days for completion the development. The whole life cycle requires 266.5 days.

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