ISSN: 1815-2058

Volume 28, Issue 2

Volume 28, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2013, Page 93-182


Determination of the saline water intrusion zone and its contamination with ground water in the Dibddiba aquifer using vertical electrical sounding technique at Basrah Governorate, southern Iraq.

S.Z. Khorshid; W.M. Al-Musawi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 93-108

Abstract - Thirty Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) measuring points (Schlumberger array) were carried out in order to determine the number of the underlying layers, depths and their thicknesses, as well as ground water table and its influence by the saline water coming from the sea or even underlying layer. These points were distributed within five profiles, 500 m spacing between points. The length of each profile is 3 km and the distance between profiles is 2 km. These points were chosen at Basrah Governorate, southern Al-Zubair district. Qualitative interpretation was applied to study the type of the electrical field curves, which were classified to HKQQ, KQQ, KQQQ, QQQ and QQ. Five apparent resistivity sections and eight isoresistivity contour maps were drawn. Quantitative interpretation was carried out using five geoelectrical sections which were drawn along the selected profiles. Number of the underlying layers, depths, thicknesses and depth of ground water table were determined for each VES point along the investigated profiles. Also, decreasing of the apparent resistivity values with depth was noticed especially at the groundwater bearing intervals. This is because of the increasing of salinity in ground water at these intervals especially at the mid-way of all considered profiles. The rise of saline water belong to the lower part of the Dibddiba aquifer towards the brackish or fresh water existed in the upper profile due to the unprogramm able pumping processes which may cause mixture between them and make the resultant water more saline. Large reduction in the apparent resistivity values was also observed at the eastern parts of the study area near Khor Al-Zubair boundaries which indicate high electrical conductivity values. This is led to the increasing of saline water that probably comes from the sea. This fact is certainly approved by the interpretation of the isoresistivity contour map plotted for the upper part of aquifer and by comparing hydrochemical analysis for ten wells with the above result.

Adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions by porcellanite.

T.E. Jassim; A.Y. Hmood

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 109-120

Abstract - This work is concerned with one of the applications of adsorption behavior from aqueous solution. It deals with the adsorption of copper (II) and lead (II) ions on the surface of porcellanite, which is locally available in Iraq. The purpose of this study is to search for surfaces that are highly applicable for copper (II) and lead (II) ions adsorption to treat the pollution of aqueous solution in nature. The different variables affecting the adsorption capacity of the porcellanite such as contact time, initial metal ion concentration in the feed solution, pH of the medium and temperature, were investigated on a batch process mode. The optimum contact time to attain equilibrium is 90 min for copper (II) ion, 30 min for lead (II) ion, and the pH values in the range of 2-10. The results showed the optimum pH for Cu(II) is 8 and for Pb(II) is 4. The experimental data of adsorption were fitted to two different isotherms, namely; Langmuir and Freundlich. These isotherms equations were applied at different temperatures. The results obtained showed that, the Langmuir isotherm equation is better fitted to the experimental data than the Freundlich isotherm equation. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that ΔH was endothermic, ΔG was a spontaneous process and ΔS was positive value.

Effect of different dietary proteins and fats on the digestive enzymes activities in the common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in floating cages.

A.Y.J. Al-Saraji; N.A.N. Nasir

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 121-130

Abstract - The digestive enzyme activities of the common carp fed with different diets of protein sources were investigated during 150 days trial in order to obtain a theoretical basis for artificial diet preparation for the culture of carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio L.). The results showed that the fish at treatment 3 (protein 13.82%, fat 4.76% and carbohydrate 67.81%) had high levels of alkaline protease activity. Acid protease activity was high at the treatment 1 (protein 23.68%, fat 16.28% and carbohydrate 43.68%) (p<0.05). In general, the acid protease activity was higher than alkaline protease during the course of the study. Amylase activity reached a highest value in fish fed with none animal protein sources (treatment 3). Lipase activity showed a high level in fish fed with high lipid contents (treatment 1).

The impact of high alkali media on the biochemical compositions of two hydrophytes; Lemna minor L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. from Shatt Al-Arab River, Basrah-Iraq.

K.K. Haraib

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 131-138

Abstract - The present work aims at understanding the effect of high alkali media on the biochemical composition of two hydrophytes; Lemna minor L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. Each of these two hydrophytes was planted in 4-one liter glass containers of pH 7.5, 8.5, 9.5 and 10.5 under laboratory conditions. Samples were taken after two weeks for physico-chemical parameters and tissue (protein, fat and ash) analysis. The results show that the highest protein contents (34.81 %, 34.66 %) were found in the control medium of L. minor, in C. demersum at pH 7.5. The least protein content was 21.45% in L.minor at pH 9.5. As to the fat contents the highest value (7.50 %) was recorded in L. minor at pH 9.5, while the least one was 1.181% in L. minor at pH 10.5. The highest ash content of C. demersum was 19.88 % at pH 10.5 and the least was 11.93% at the control. High pH showed negative impact on protein content of the two aquatic plants. The protein was reduced as the pH value elevates, but at pH 10.5 the protein content rised again. As for fat content, increasing pH caused increasing of fat in L. minor and its decreasing in C. demersum except pH 10.5 at which the fat comes up again in reverse to the former plant. The ash content of L. minor was fluctuating, whereas in C. denersum, the increasing of pH value caused increasing of ash content.

Total dissolved solids modeling in the Shatt Al-Basrah canal, using Mike 11.

A.A. Lafta; Q.M.F. Al-Aeaswi; S.A.R. Al-Taei

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 139-150

Abstract - The application of one dimensional model is presented to simulate the distribution of total dissolved solids in the Shatt Al-Basrah canal using Mike11. The model was being run for 22 days with time step ∆t=60 sec and ∆x=200m. The hydrodynamic behavior and TDS distribution were studied for two time periods, the first period was represented the high flow period due to drying of the marshes and the second period was the period after opening the Nasiriyah drainage pump station in Dhi-Qar province. The model was calibrated in two site of the canal, the first locate before Al-Basrah high way bridge and the second locate near Al-Zubair bridge. The result of the model was in a good agreement with the field data of water level and TDS distribution.

Serum proteins and leucocytes differential count in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) infested with ectoparasites.

S.M. Ahmed; A.H. Ali

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 151-162

Abstract- A total of 48 Pond reared common carp C. carpio ranged between 2.5-11.8 cm in total length were obtained from University of Basrah's fish farm during May-June 2011. It was investigated for parasites, and it was infested with four different groups of ectoparasites, including Ciliophora (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp.), Monogenoidea (Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus sp.), Trematoda (Ascocotyle coleostoma metacercariae) and Crustacea (Dermoergasilus sp. and Lernaea sp. copepodid larval stage). Differential count of leucocytes, total protein level, albumin and globulin in blood serum were determined in healthy (non-infested) and infested fish. No significant differences (p>0.05) have been reported between infested and non-infested fish in all blood parameters except in monocyte counts of the third group (infested with two species of Ciliophora) and sixth group (double infestation between A. coleostoma and Dermoergasilus sp.). This study showed that common carp can withstand different light and mild infestation of ectoparasites. We can considered common carp among a fish category having very good resistibility towards ectoparasites.

Studies on the morphology of the olfactory organ in the freshwater teleost, Labeo bata (Hamilton).

P. Chakrabarti; S.K. Ghosh

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 163-174

Abstract - The structural components of the olfactory apparatus of Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822) were studied morphologically as well as histologically. The oval shaped olfactory rosette was comprised of 24-26 lamellae of different sizes on each side of the median raphe. Histologically each lamella was composed of two layers of olfactory epithelium separated by narrow central core which made up of loose connective tissues, nerve fibres and blood vessels. The sensory olfactory epithelium contained principally three types of receptor cells: primary, secondary and microvillous cells. The non-sensory epithelium was typified with a series of mucous cells, stratified epithelial cells and mast cells. Basal cells were situated at the base of the epithelium, adjacent to the central core. Various cells on the olfactory epithelium were correlated with their functional consequence of fish concerned.

Uses of reflector amplitude of seismic acoustic impedance logs as an aid in deducing lithological content of the geological formations.

A.Z. Almayahi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 175-182

Abstract - Seismic data of two across lines have been processed. The processing sequence implied a suggested parameters that have least effects on original wavelet attributes (e.g., the amplitude and shape). This processing procedure is a legitimate enough for studying the lithological consists of geological formations as well as hydrocarbon contents. A total of 47 wiggle traces (i.e., 19 wiggle traces from line one and 28 wiggle traces from line two) have been aligned side by side according to their CDP number. The data were limited to time window of 1000-2000 m sec. Reflector amplitudes were manually picked/estimated along the all seismic wiggle traces. The picked amplitude values were plotted as contour maps. Contour maps provided preliminary indications of lithological variation from soft to hard physical properties within the formation where seismic line crosses. A number of contour lines closures in line one were noticed. These closures may be an indication of variation in the lithological consistent and hydrocarbon trap. More contour lines closures were existed in the second line. Some of them were new and the other were extension to the closure in the first line. These closures/features can be a horizontal extension to the same facies.