ISSN: 1815-2058

Volume 20, Issue 1

Volume 20, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2005, Page 1-275


Cercarial production of Lymnaea auricularia experimentally infected with different numbers of Fasciola gigantica Miracidia.

M.Y. Al-Abbad; A.A.A. Al-Ali; S.H. Al-Mayah

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

In the present study three groups of Lymnaea auricularia snails A, B and C were infected with 1, 5 and 10 Fasciola gigantica miracidia respectively and their cercarial production was observed. The emergence of cercariae was delayed with increase of miracidial dose, but it was not correlated with the number of miracidia inoculated. Group A had three peaks of cercarial output at 6th, 11th and 15th weeks, group B had two peaks at 7th and 10th weeks and group C had one peak at 7th week after the first cercarial emergence. The daily number of emergent cercariae of the three groups was irregular. The number of cercariae shed by snails was not correlated with the number of miracidia inoculated into the snails.

Environment and health in Southern Iraq: Facts and future prospects.

O.S. Habib

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 7-19

Health as a product of complex interaction of many factors related to host, disease agent and environment is some thing that can not be sacrificed for any other thing. Actually all other attributes in life may be sacrificed for health. Modern health care systems tend to emphasize high technology in diagnostic and therapeutic care, yet the overall burden of disease on human being did not change a lot. One of the reasons why this did not take places the fact that most of ill health is related to ill environment. The effect of environment on health is neither well understood nor well invested in. In Iraq, it is believed and it can be seen that the environment has been so damaged that its repair is beyond the capacity of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Environment. Indeed, the repair of environment needs a total national effort. The marshes of southern Iraq as an important and unique ecosystem have been greatly distorted. The improvement of environment as a whole can not be imagined unless it encompasses the marshes situation. In this paper, we attempt to explore the main environmental problems concentrating on those related to health. Then we put a proposal to deal with specific aspects within an overall approach to monitor, rehabilitate and protect the environment in Iraq in the long run.

A primalary study of the biological control of Fascioliasis.

A.A.H. Awad; S.H. Al-Mayah

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 21-26

The present study demonstrated that the infection of Lymnaea auricularia with an oligochaete worm gave a good protection against the penetration of Fasciola gigantica miracidia to the snails. Experimentally, it was found that the oligochaete ingested cercariae, which shed from other snails and believed that it could play a significant role in the control of fascioliasis.

Relative growth and morphological variability in Ischnura evansi (Morton) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

M.K. Marzoq

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 27-38

Morphological variability was studied in a laboratory reared adults of Ischnura evansi. Total body length, head width, thorax length, abdomen length and width length were measured in 44 ♂ and 69 ♀ phenotype (23 blue, 28 orange and 18 orange-brown females). Result indicated that males were smaller than females in all character, females phenotypes were significant difference, linear regression equation for relationship between body length and abdomen length as well as wing length for males and females are significant. Gynochrome 2 females were larger than androchromes, as body size is related to larval nourishment, this suggest an effect of maintenance of polymorphism. The difference of the mean body mass between sexes is significant, head width and wing length increased with body length.

Environmental study of the zooplankton in southern Iraqi marshes.

E.H. Mohamed; A.H. Awad; M.M. Akbar

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 39-54

The present study has been carried out during the period from September 2003 till August 2004. Samples of zooplankton, which include copepoda, cladocera, ostracoda, rotifera, nauplii and shrimp larvae, were collected bimonthly from Al-Chabaish, Al-Hammar and Al-Fuhud marshes located inside boarder of Al-Chabaish quarter in Thi Qur governorate. The highest zooplankton density (229.86 Ind./L., 103.58 Ind./L.) were found during October in Al-Chabaish and Al-Hammar marshes and 425.45 Ind./L. during March in Al-Fuhud marsh. The low density (47.86, 5.15, 25.1 Ind./L.) were observed during September, May and July for Al-Chabaish, Al-Hammar and Al-Fuhud marshes, respectively. The influence of some environment factors on the zooplankton abundance were investigated. The highest water level in Al-Hammar and Al-fuhud was noticed in April 2004; however, the new releasing water reached Al-Chabaish in February 2004. The results of the current study show negative relationship between zooplankton density and each of water temperature, depth, dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen, and positive relationship with pH in Al-Chabaish marsh. In Al-Hammar marsh the relationship was negative between zooplankton density and each of depth, dissolved oxygen, and positive with water temperature and biological oxygen demand. In Al-Fuhud marsh, negative relationship was found between zooplankton density and biological oxygen demand and positive with dissolved oxygen and depth.

Effect of some ecological factors on the adult and larval stages of shrimp Exopalaemon styliferus (H. Milne Edwards, 1840).

Sabeeh H. Al-Mayah; Malik H. Ali; Murtatha Y. Al-Abad

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 55-66

The present study shows that the adult of the shrimp Exopalaemon styliferus is euryhaline, while its larval stage is stenohaline, also the ovigerious are found most of the year, and nevertheless two peaks of reproduction can be differentiated. The Incubation period, hatching percentage and mortality percentage of ovigerious females are affected by temperature, Duration and total number of larval stages are also effected by temperature.

Study of physical and chemical properties of water, sediments and soil of Thi-Qar marshes.

S.A . Ali; R.Gh. Neghamish

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 67-80

The present study concerned with physical and chemical properties of water, sediments and soils for many locations of Thi-Qar marshes during July-August (2004). pH, conductivity, total hardness, turbidity, ions concentration of Cl-, Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+, HCO3- for water were estimated the results were as follow: (7.4-7.8), (1.22-12.25 mmohs/cm), (211.2-2475) mg/l, (3.8-28.0) mg/l, (67.2-943) mg/l, (57.6-530.1) mg/l, (14.88-461.6) mg/l, (0.7-11.9) mg/l, (140-655) mg/l, and (3.3-1.6) mg/l respectively. The bulk density, particle density, total organic carbon (TOC %), soil texture, pH conductivity and ions concentration of Cl-, Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+, HCO3-, the percentage of (NH4+) for sediments were measured. The results were as follow: (1.04-1.25) g/cm3, (2.35-2.70) gm/cm3, (0.62-0.85%), silty loam, sandy loam, clay loam, (7.6-7.8), (3-8.2) mmho/cm, (171.5-686.2) mg/l, (172.8-403.4) mg/l, (39.6-430.4) mg/l, (2-8.9) mg/l, (575-855) mg/l, (6.12-9.3) mg/l, (0.05-0.08%) respectively. The bulk density, the particle density, total organic matter, texture, pH, conductivity, ions Cl-, Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+, HCO3-, NH4+ % for soils were measured. The results obtained were as follow: (1.05-1.25 g/cm3), (2.4-2.6 g/cm3), (0.98-1.54 %), sandy loam, silty loam, silty loam, silty loam, (7.4-7.8), (7.2–9) mmhos/cm, (171.5-345.6 mg/l), (288–518.4 mg/l), (140.5–408.9 mg/ l), (4-6.7 mg/l ), (600-745 mg/l), (6.12-9.3 mg/l), (0.03-0.07 %) respectively. The study revealed that the water in the most of marsh's sediment and soil was of high salinities and in high dangerous of Na+, but may use for the waterly-life.

Insecticides impact in southern Iraqi marshes environment.

M.A.M. Al-Hilffi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 81-89

The present study show the impacts of the misuse of the different insecticides in fishing processes and bird hunting in the southern Iraqi marshes. There was a positive impact of the use of the different insecticides on the decline of fish numbers degradation in quality of its test and the effect of the insecticides on the environment.

The origin and evolution of Southern Iraqi marshes and there sedimentological characteristic (literature review).

A.A.L. Kowais

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 91-103

Marshes and swamps of Iraq are considered to be one of the most important geographical units and it create a complicated sediments and environment system in the south part therefore, a study on the origin of the creation and composition of Iraq south Marshes has been done .It tackled the openinious of marshes creation and the metal construction of its sediments, and it showed the importance of this part and its affects of the environment of the area in general. The sedimental and metal study on marshes has shown that the suspended sediments that come from Tigris and Euphrates and the dust sediments which is carried by air are considered to be one of the most important sources of the sediments of the area. The study also shows the high percentage of (green units) as opposed to mud, sand, and the high percentage of (calcite) as opposed to the metals that create the sediments of the marshes.

The potential water supply for the rehabilitation in the southern marshes of Iraq.

H.B. Nomas

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 105-126

The marshes received large amount of water (42) billion m³/yr, (33) billion m³/y out of it is from the discharge of Tigris and Euphrates, which annually attain (78) billion m³/y. during 1970s in Iraq. Currently, as well as in future, it is difficult to achieve such a great amount of water due to the effect of the upstream basin developments projects (Turkey, Syria and Iran). This caused an apparent reduction in the rivers discharge in Iraq during (1990-1998) drop to 61 billion m³ and expects to be decreased to 45 billion m³ by the year 2020 as the demands reach 38 billion m³/yr. The present available water, which can restore the marshes, is about 16 billion m³/yr. This amount will be reduced in future because of reasons mentioned above. Therefore, Iraq should make a great effort to achieve fair agreement regarding the water quota among the countries of Tigris-Euphrates basin and apply an effective irrigation plan to reduce losses from 53% to 28%. This will also save about 14 billion m³/yr. Moreover, the drainage water should be controlled to an average of about 17 billion m³/yr. for reclamation and optimization use of the groundwater and Al-Tharthar reservoir (total storage capacity 77.6 billion m3). Such water strategy will promote water resources to satisfy future economic demands and supply water to the marshes.

Drying of the Iraqi Marshes from the viewpoints of workers in agriculture sector.

M.H. Ali; M.A. Feyadh

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 127-132

In order to determine the viewpoints of the workers in Agriculture sector (farmers and officials), concerning the drying of the southern Iraqi Marshes, an examinee has been designed including 20 statements. 10 of those statements are supporting the drying process while the other 10 are oppositing to it. The results revealed that 91% of Misan farmers were opposite to the drying process while 9% are supporting. Whereas all the agricultural officials in Misan were oppositing the drying process. On the other hand, the examinee has shown that 87.3% of Basrah governorate farmers are oppositing the drying process, while 21.7% were supporting it. Furthermore, it was found that 77.3% of the officials in Basrah were oppositing, while 22.7% were supporting the drying of the marshes.

Fisheries of the Iraqi marshes in the past, the future and the means of development.

A. Al-Sha; maa

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 133-155

The waters of marshes and rivers comprise about 70 % of the total area of water bodies in the country. They are regarded a good source for fish a resources, if the complete protection is available. In order to estirnate the fish fortune level in these water, a number of filed visits to the marshes of southern Iraq were done, in the areas that are near to city of Nassiriya, they include Al-A’kika, Al-Tar and Al-F’hood, to the North West of Hor Al-Hammar. The first visit (study) was in 1988-89, and then it was followed by a next one in 1999-94. The people of marshes use different kinds of nets. The study also concerned with visiting of local markets and fish markets which are spreading throughout the area of study. After achieving the study by the work team of fishery researchers that included actescription of fish resources reality in the marshes and the obstacles that faced it, many scientific thoughts were suggested that aim to the best ways for raising and developing the fish fortune of the marshes in the resources.

Food, industrial and drugs products from fish, shrimp and their wastes.

M.A.J. Al-Taae

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 157-170

Too much attention is increasingly given to food stuff processing both locally and internationally due to the relation it has to achieve food security. Fish and shrimp as a wealth are characterized as being a permanent, constant and renewing resource if it is economically well exploited. Because of their importance, good taste, availability, adaptability and variation, fish and shrimp are consumed either directly as grill, roast or in soup or indirectly as canned, dried, salted, smoked, pickled (marinated) ….. etc. It is also consumed as new delicious products after mincing its meat and other products that have different names in different countries. The mass residue (waste) left of processing of fish and shrimp cheap of high quality are not exploited well and properly. Furthermore, these residues cause harmful pollution to the health and economy, which combine with the economic pressure, growth of population, lack of food especially animal protein in addition to factors related to getting the necessary foodstuff and fabricated materials and drugs (pharmaceuticals). Consequently, researchers and specialists of food affairs think of the best ways to exploit fish particularly it constitutes 50 % of the raw material (fish and shrimp).

Design of solar energy system to supply a marsh village, southern Iraq with electrical energy.

A.K.K. Hassan

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 171-182

This research describe a simple design of photovoltaic solar system to supply a village at marshes with independent electrical energy nodules, taking into account all meteorological conditions of this region. Different types of solar panels have been studied, and suitable choice is done for better performance of the system due to this region. This approach is suitable for any other region with an elastic variation depend upon the meteorological conditions and loads.

Analysis of mechanisms used in marshes drainage (an attempt of possible exploitation and investment).

W.R. Mutashar

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 183-196

The desiccation Mechanisms have studied, these Mechanisms were carried out by the previous Regime. Several maps were plotted by using the Satellite Photos of study area (Marshes Zones) at different two times and plotted a map illustrated operations of the desiccation Mechanisms. So as to put some of trying to study these operations and their exploitation and composing for rehabilitation of Marshes regions during a suggestion view of reverse analysis for desiccation these Mechanisms for recharge of Marshes regions by water to according is required. This means possibility using these mechanisms for recharging of Marshes zones and controlling on its water.

Vocal alteration and the easiness of Assad dialect in Thi Qar marshes.

J.Y.F. Al-Edani

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 197-212

The present paper sheds light upon a phonemic phenomenon (phonemic alteration) related to marshes inhabitants. That change fulfills easiness in their pronunciation of certain phrases through avoiding whatever is difficult or pedantic in their dialect. The paper is based on a framework which contains a definition of vocal alteration. It has two sections: section one sheds light on the remaining color of the old dialect throughout the present way of phonemic alteration. Section two discusses the development in that dialect via phonemic alteration. The paper concludes that such alterations go back to the old past while some other alterations are recent ones. However both types are meant to facilitate communication among those natives of the marshes, specifically Beni Asad.

The marshlands of southern Iraq ecocide and genocide, the causes and impacts.

M.A. Al-Mukhtar; T.A. Khalaf

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 213-232

The Bath regime conducted a wide programmed and organized engineering campaign to drain the Marshlands of Southern Iraq. By constructing a series of dams and canals, in order to prevent water to inflow to the marshes. This led to draining of more than 90 % of the marshes before the collapses of Saddam regime. The draining caused very big environmental and humanitarian damages that stormed hundreds of thousands of Marsh Arabs by destroying their life system, which continued for more than five thousands of years. The draining impacts on the marsh ecosystem were totally devastated catastrophic one. Many inhabited mammals and birds species extinct or threatened by extinction. The same is for many species of fish, especially the local and economical ones. The marshes had vanished as a winter shelter and as a place for gathering of inside and intercontinental immigration birds; this put forty species on the list of threatened red species. Some of the birds were forced to change their places to unsuitable ones. The reduction in the amounts of the water which inter Shatt Al-Arab led to drastic changes in its environment, and led changes in shore corrosion. The draining crisis was a genocide action led to annihilation of an original historical heritage, by killing of tens of thousands of Marsh Arabs. After the uprising of 1991 the attack become fiercer, this led to destroyed towns, villages, fields and domestic animals. Some times the internationally banned mass destruction weapons were also used. The people who remained alive had been forced to leave their home and to shift to another area, and for many times. They were under the pressure of annihilation; this made them to escape to towns and to become idle. They also spread in the camps as refugees in the neighboring countries; they reach the edge of extinction. Nevertheless these acts are listed among the genocide action.

The impact of forced migration on social structure of Arab marshes.

U.B. Shibeeb; M.M. Ibrahim

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 233-252

The marsh environment is considered a unique both naturally and socially, and this imposed different features and characters of its dwellers from those of the neighborhood environment of both the village and towns. Therefore the forced migration of the marsh Arabs to the other areas had impact on the economic, cultural, environmental and relational aspect of the new areas.

The strategy of agriculture and rural development in the marshes of southern Iraq.

A.K. Abood; A. Ismaeel; F.A. Taha

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 253-259

The economic importance of the marshes is upraising, and hence the necessity of the growth of its present status, due to complexity of the ecological problems, and also due to the needs for production of more food to the Iraqis through the coning 3 decade. The FAO declared that there should be an increase of about 60 % of the food prediction in the world to compromise the human increase of about 2 billions by 2030.