ISSN: 1815-2058

Volume 31, Issue 2

Volume 31, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2016, Page 95-180


Assessment of the ecological quality of soft-bottom benthic communities in the Syrian coast, Eastern Mediterranean.

I. Ammar; Ch. Hussein

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 95-108

The present study was aimed to evaluate several benthic biological indices to assess the ecological quality status of marine environments in Syria. Samples were obtained from four different areas of Syrian coast (Al-Bassit, Banias, Tartous and Al-Hamidia) on a monthly scale from March 2007 to December 2007. Results showed that the percentage of benthic species are increased significantly in the stations with healthy ecological status. The cluster analysis and the MDS have shown that the studied stations are subjected to environmental disturbance. Some species have been found to be more sensitive (high values of Hurlbert Index) than others such as the Rhinoclavis kochi, which belonged to the Gastropodes taxa and Notomastus latericeus belonged to the polychaetes taxa. The ecological quality of the Syrian coast was assessed using three biotic indices (H′, AMBI and BQI). The Shannon–Wiener index H′ was ranged from 2.88 to 5.39. Thus, the ecological status varied between moderate and high. The values of AZTI Marine Biotic Index (AMBI) and Benthic Quality Index (BQI) classified the ecological state between high and good (slight disturbance).

A preliminary study on the effects of different salinities on some hormones level in serum of Yellow fin seabream Acanthopagrus latus fingerlings.

L.M.A.A. AlKatrani

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 109-118

A laboratory experiment was performed on fingerlings of Acanthopagrus latus to estimate the effect of direct transfer from the controlled salinity 1.5 psu to different salinities of (1.5, 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 psu) for periods of (6, 24, 48 and 96) hrs. for short term effect experiments. The following hormones (cortisol, prolactin, thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)) were determined in the serum of these fishes by ELISA technique after exposed to different salinities. Results of T4 and T3 were correlated directly with salinity increase, the (96 hrs.) of time was not enough to reach the stable state of these hormones at all salinities. The salinity 45 psu gave the lowest level of T3 (0.468) ng/ml and showed a sharp drift of T4 level at the time 24 hrs. (0.368) μg/dl, which indicated a breaking down of these hormones, and A. latus fingerlings were unable to sustain at this salinity. Prolactin hormone was correlated inversely with the salinity increase which means that there was ability of this hormone to acclimate in freshwater. Cortisol level was high in high and low salinities indicating its activity in freshwater and seawater environments. The study concludes that the four hormones (cortisol, prolactin, T4 and T3) in the blood serum of A. latus fingerlings showed a clear variations upon salinity changes in the short term effect experiment as a transit status reflecting the capability of these fingerlings to adapt to wide range of salinities vary from 1.5 psu to 30 psu, and the salinity 45 psu was out of its tolerance range.

Accumulation of some heavy metals in Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822) collected from Shatt Al-Arab River.

G.A. Al-Najare; A.A. Jaber; A.A. Hantoush; A.H. Talal

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 119-128

In the present study, the concentrations of various heavy metals including copper, nickel, lead, cadmium, iron and manganese were investigated in several organs (muscles of head, muscles of trunks, muscles of tails, liver, gills, gonads and intestine) of Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822) which was collected from Shatt Al-Arab river during the period between February 2013 and September 2013. Heavy metal concentrations were measured by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results of the heavy metals during study period showed that the highest concentration was 41.910 µg/g (dry weight) for iron between February and March, whereas the least concentration was 0.036 µg/g (dry weight) for lead between June and July. Also, they showed that the highest concentration was 27.470 µg/g (dry weight) for iron in liver, whereas the least concentration was 0.003 µg/g (dry weight) for lead in muscles of tails.

Assessment of water quality using Canadian Water Quality Index and GIS in Himreen Dam Lake, Iraq.

L.F. Lazem

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 129-140

The Canadian versions of Water Quality Index (WQI) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) were applied in this study to assess the water quality of Himreen Dam Lake. Water samples were taken seasonally during the period from summer 2014 to spring 2015. A total of 10 parameters were measured in this work, and were considered in calculating the water quality index (WQI), namely: potential hydrogen ion (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca+2), magnesium (Mg+2), chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO4-2), nitrate (NO3) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). The results showed that the pH was ranged from 7.1-7.9, EC was varied from 558-864 µS/cm and TDS was ranged between 322-522 mg/l. The ranges of sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate and sodium adsorption ratio were 13-34 mg/l, 32.27-86.34 mg/l, 35.0-67.8 mg/l, 29-88 mg/l, 129-254 mg/l, 0.9-3.6 µg N-NO3/l and 1.62-4.99 meq/l respectively. The values for the water quality index (WQI) were varied from 72.14 to 72.36 that categorized within category three (fair). The lowest value was recorded at station 2 while the highest was encountered from station 1. The results revealed that the quality of Himreen Lake water was suitable for irrigation.

Microbial mats covering recent sediments in the tidal flats of Khor Al-Zubair South of Iraq, NW Arabian Gulf.

B.N. Albadran; L.F. Al-Kaaby

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 141-158

This present study was deal with the microbial sedimentary structures which are mainly induced by the cyanobacteria in the tidal flats of Khor Al-Zubair, North west of the Arabian Gulf. There are three types of sedimentary structures in the area; (i) physical genetics, (ii) biological genetics and (iii) bio-physical genetics. The last one represents the microbial induced sedimentary structure appeared in ten forms, which led to increasing of tidal flats resistance to erosion process and concentrating the coarse grain sizes that accompanied with these structures. The identification of cyanobacteria shows five genera, four of them are filamentous; Microcoleus sp., Lyngbya spp., Oscillatoria spp., and Schizothrix sp., while the other is coccoid Aphanothece sp.

Descriptive and comparative osteology of five cyprinid fishes from Southern Iraq.

A.H.J. Abdullah

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 159-168

Descriptive and comparison osteology was conducted in the present research for five species of cyprinid fishes during the period from June to September 2016 of some paired head bones for premaxilla, maxilla, lower Jaw and opercular. A total of 111 specimens were collected by electrofishing from Huwaza and Chybiyesh marshes Southern Iraq include: Carasobarbus luteus, Carassius gibelio, Cyprinus carpio, Leuciscus vorax and Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi. Results showed the significant differences (P<0.05) among bones of species which were described and compared in both intergeneric and interspecific. Statistical analysis was done for all bones. Coefficient of determination (r2) showed a strength correlation of the linear association between standard length and length of premaxilla, maxilla, dentary, angloluarticular and opercular of L. vorax (0.973, 0.89, 0.976, 0.95 and 0.986) respectively. The present study revealed new information about the phylogeny of cyprinids by evident the differences among species in the shape and design of bones, which was rise to isolate it in different genera, but there was convergence in general shape to join it in one family.

Physiographic study of Shatt Al-Arab Delta South of Iraq by Application of Remote Sensing Technique.

M.M. Abd-Alqader; S.T. Al-Mulla; B.N. Albadran

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 169-180

The Shatt Al-Arab River is formed by the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers near Qurna 75 km, Basrah Governorate, approximately 75 km north of the city of Basrah, southern of Iraq. Satellite images of Landsat 7 ETM+ for years 2000, 2002 and 2006 were processed with ERDAS Imagine 8.4 and ArcGIS 9.3. They were used to interpret the geomorphology of Shatt Al-Arab delta. Shuttle Topographic Radar Mission. Geomorphologic structures, suspended load distribution and lateral movement of the main channel are interpreted and three lobes are distinguished at the formative delta front, confirming lateral channel movement as the prime factor in the delta’s formation. A westward deviation in the main channel of the Shatt Al-Arab River could divert into Abdullah Creek within a few years.