ISSN: 1815-2058

Volume 25, Issue 1

Volume 25, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2010, Page 1-109

Pigments of Heritiera fomes seedlings under different salinity conditions: perspective sea level rise.

A. Mitra; K. Banerjee

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

Abstract - Heritiera fomes (commonly known as Sundari in India and Bangladesh) is gradually getting extinct from high saline pockets of lower Gangetic plain. Hydroponically grown seedlings of the species were analyzed for Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, Chl a:b ratio and carotenoid at five different salinity levels (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 psu). The concentrations of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments exhibited significant negative correlations with salinity (p < 0.01). The total chlorophyll expressed, on unit fresh wt. basis decreased by 63.39% to 73.33% and in case of carotenoid the decrease was from 27.78% to 36.84% with the increase of salinity from 2 to 20 psu. The Chl a:b ratio in the plant remained almost constant through out the period of investigation. The results show that Heritiera fomes of Indian Sundarbans region can be sustained and propagated under low saline environment. At 15 psu, the plants become acclimated in one to two weeks, but at 20 psu the seedlings could not survive. The study is important as rising salinity is experienced in central Indian Sundarbans of lower Gangetic plain due to sea level rise and obstruction of freshwater flow from Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly channel as a result of heavy siltation.

The effect of salinity and temperature on the uptake of cadmium and zinc by the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis with some notes on their survival.

M. Ali; A. Taylor

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 11-30

Abstract - This study has investigated the effect of salinity and temperature on the rates of uptake of Cd and Zn by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis under laboratory conditions. Exposure of mussels to concentrations of 2 ppm resulted in an almost linear increase in the concentration of Cd and Zn throughout 14 days of exposure. Only the whole soft tissue of each mussel was frozen, freeze-dried and acid-digested before measuring the level of contamination by the spectrophotometer. Zn uptake was interrupted by elimination periods at high salinity. The uptake of Cd by M. edulis was at its maximum at low salinity and high temperature while at high salinity, temperature did not significantly affect the rate of uptake. Salinity had a significant effect on Zn uptake with the rate of uptake being higher at low salinity. Mortalities of mussels exposed to Cd and Zn along with controls were only observed at low salinity.

The population status of sulphur goatfish Upeneus sulphureus in the Iraqi marine waters, northwest Arabian Gulf.

A.R.M. Mohamed; A.K. Resen

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 31-40

Abstract - The status of the sulphur goatfish Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier, 1829 population in the Iraqi marine waters, north-west of the Arabian Gulf was assessed using FiSAT program from March 2007 to September 2008. A total of 7574 specimens of U. sulphureus were collected by trawl net, their lengths ranged from 5 to 17cm. Length-weight relationship was W = 0.0621 L3.0125. The growth parameters estimated were L∞= 18.85cm and K= 0.72. The growth performance index (ø) of the species was computed as 2.36. Total mortality rate (Z) was computed as 2.43, natural mortality rate (M) was 1.85, fishing mortality rate (F) was 0.58 and the exploitation ratio was 0.32. The values of F and E of U. sulphureus obtained in the present study were lower than those recorded for the same species in the previous studies, whereas the population of the species exposed to higher natural mortality rate. The results indicated that the present levels of E and F were lower than those of the maximum (Y/R)'.

Seasonal variations of particulate fatty acids in waters of Shatt Al-Arab River and northwest Arabian Gulf.

H.T. Al-Saad; A.A. Hantoush; M.A. Al-Hello; M.K. Zukhair

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 41-52

Abstract - The particulate fraction of the fatty acids was investigated in water samples collected from different stations along the Shatt Al-Arab River and North-West Arabian Gulf during the period June 1993 to July 1994. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Several qualitative and quantitative differences were observed. In general, palmitoleic acid (16:1), palmitic acid (16:0), heptadecanoic acid (17:0), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2) were found to be the most abundant fatty acids in the region. Total particulate fatty acids showed large variations, from 1.45 µg/gm at station 7 (Arabian Gulf) during summer 1993 to 18.91 µg/gm at station 2 (Shatt Al-Arab River at Al-Fao town) during winter 1993. The main sources of odd and even number of fatty acids were phytoplankton and microbial activities, while aquatic plants were missing in most sites.

GIS as a tool for Classification Lake’s acidification- and eutrophication degree.

H.A. Hameed

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 53-64

Abstract GIS (Geographic information system) was used as a tool to classify 50 lakes according to acidification- and eutrophica-tion degrees. Both water pH and alkalinity showed similar trends of distribution whether they were used alone or together as de-termining criteria for acidification degree. Where as variables that was used for the determination of eutrophication degree revealed more or less different patterns. Therefore, one must be careful in determining which variable or variables that could be used in classification of lakes according to their eutrophication degree. Moreover, GIS can be used in documentation, analyzing, and pre-diction the possible future changes in Iraqi aquatic ecosystems.

Temporal and spatial variations for petroleum hydrocarbons in water and sediments from Northern parts of Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq.

F.J.M. Al-Imarah; S.A. Ali; A.A. Ali

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 65-74

Abstract - Regional and temporal distribution of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH's) and percent Total Organic Carbon (TOC %) were investigated in water and sediments from 5 stations along Shatt Al-Arab river (1-Qurnah, 2-Shafi, 3-Deer, 4-Nihran Omer and 5-Sinbad close to expected sources of pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons. Measured TPH's in the dissolved phase of water were ranged between 5.10 ng/l in station 3 and 9.48 ng/l in station 5 comparable to Basrah light crude oil. In the sediments levels of PHC's ranged between 7.37 mg/l in station 3 and 24.41 mg/l in station 5.Seasonal variations in TPH's in waters and sediments were found as lower concentrations 2.65–4.20 and 3.15–10.36 mg/l respectively during summer, while higher concentration recorded during winter were found to be 7.86–15.60 µg/l in water and 13.52–45.21 mg/g in sediments. % TOC measured in the sediments were ranged from 0.50 % to 0.81 % in stations 2 and 5 respectively. Strong positive correlations were found between TPH's and TOC for all stations with correlation coefficient (r = 0.93).

Geotechnical properties of some tidal flat sediments of Khor-Abdullah coast, southern Iraq.

W.R. Muttashar; M.A. Al-Tai; F.K. Al-Amari; A.H. Ali

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 75-82

Abstract - This research involves geotechnical studies for some tidal flat sediments of Khor-Abdulla coast in the southern Basra city. This area has an important strategic location in future, the Iraqi Government intending to establish large engineering projects such as a big Basrah port. Sediment samples have been taken at a depth of 1.25 m to study the physical, chemical, and engineering properties of this region’s sediment. The investigation results reveal that its average high natural moisture was 37.5 %, Liquid Limit LL 45.5 %, Plastic Limit PL 26.5 %, Plasticity Index PI 19%. Hence, these sediments show high clay percentages (85-65%). It can be classified as Silty Clay sediments with low plasticity. Engineering tests resulted in average Compression Strength of 206 kN/m2, Max. dry density 1.63 g/cm3 while consolidation coefficient 0.15 m2/year, consolidation index (0.28) with initial consolidation 35.5 kN/m2, and swelling index 0.071. These factors indicate a week sediment with low plasticity. Chemical tests results reveal high concentrations of sulfates chlorides, and organic matters. TDS were 30666 mg/l, CaCO3 41 mg/l, sulfate 2987 mg/l, Mg 600 mg/l, Ca 46.6 mg/l, and chlorides 1334.2 mg/l. while EC 44.5 mmhos/cm, pH 7.7.

N – alkanes in molluscs of Shatt Al-Arab river.

W.A. Farid; H.T. Al-Saad; A.H.Y. Al-Adhub

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 83-98

Abstract This study comprises monitoring of the n-alkanes in the Shatt Al-Arab river by using the seven molluscs species as bioindicators. These species are: snails Lymnaea auricularia, Theodoxus jordani, Physa acuta, Melanopsis nodosa, and Melanoides tuberculata and bivalves Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula fluminalis. The species of molluscs are collected from different locations of the Shatt Al-Arab river (along the region extended from Abu Al-Khasib to Garmat-Ali) during 2004 and 2005. Each species consisted of at least 3500 adult of individuals of uniform sizes. The hydrocarbons from these species were extracted and analyzed both by spectroflurometer (total hydrocarbons) and high resolution capillary gas chromatography (n-alkanes). The concentrations of total hydrocarbons in mollusc’s species of the Shatt Al-Arab river ranged from 1.93 μg/g dry weight in T. jordani to 26.56 μg/g dry weight in C. fluminea. The range of carbon chain length of n-alkanes in these individuals was ranging from C13 - C32. The bimodal distribution with two maxima around C17 and C27 suggested two different sources of hydrocarbons both biogenic and anthropogenic. The dominance of the odd carbon numbers n-alkanes (C15, C17, C25 and C29) in the mollusc’s species indicated biogenic origin of hydrocarbons .The pristane values were more than those of phytane. Pristane and phytane in the mollusc’s species suggest biogenic origin. CPI values are more than one indicating a biogenic origin of hydrocarbons in these species. Squalane is also present in some these species intimately related to anthropogenic sources of hydrocarbons. The presence of Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM) reflects the anthropogenic sources. The lower fat contents were found in T. jordani (0.33 mg/g) and the higher were in C. fluminea (0.98 mg/g). A significant relationship is found between the fat contents and hydrocarbons concentrations in the tissues of molluscs species (r = 0.8 - 0.9).

Determination of phosphate levels in the southern part of Al-Hammar marsh water by flow injection analysis.

K.H. Al-Sowdani; Y.S. Al-Jorany

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 99-109

Abstract - Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) was applied to determine phosphate concentration in water of the southern part of Al-Hammar marsh water from July 2007 to July 2008. A linear line was obtained over the range 0.25- 1.75 μg/ml of phosphate with regression coefficient for seven points is 0.9999. The detection limit was 0.075 μg/ml with % R.S.D for ten replicate analysis of 1.0 μg/ml phosphate is 0.511% and the dispersion coefficient in the flow system is 5.4. The samples can be analyzed at rates exceeding 72 sample per hour .It was noted that phosphate concentration ranged 0.295 - 1.450 μg/ml, whereas the maximum phosphate concentration was recorded in spring 2008 and the minimum in autumn 2008.