ISSN: 1815-2058

Volume 25, Issue 2

Volume 25, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2010, Page 110-204


Bioaccumulation Pattern of Heavy Metals in the Shrimps of the lower stretch of the River Ganga.

A. Mitra; K. Banerjee; R. Ghosh; S.K. Ray

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 110-123

Abstract - Rapid industrialization and urbanization have contaminated the riverine and estuarine ecosystems to a great extent. To evaluate such kind of contamination, we undertook a research programme to analyze the concentrations of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in muscle tissue of five commonly edible shrimp species, namely Penaeus monodon, Penaeus indicus, Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus marguensis and Metapenaeus brevicornis collected from the lower stretch of the River Ganga (in the Sundarbans delta complex). The heavy metals in tissue samples were estimated using a Perkin-Elmer Sciex ELAN 5000 ICP mass spectrometer. Concentrations in shrimp species ranged as follows: Zn: 4.11 ± 0.13 – 353.45 ± 2.98; Cu: 3.43 ± 0.10– 140.49 ± 1.81; Pb: BDL - 8.21 ± 0.63 and Cd: BDL – 3.66 ± 0.12 mg kg-1 dry weight. Irrespective of species, heavy metals accumulated in the shrimp muscle in the order Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The concentration of heavy metals in the tissues varied significantly depending upon the locations from where the species were collected. Although the concentration of selected heavy metals were within the normal range in all stations, but at station 1 (Nayachar Island) the metal level has exceeded in the muscle of shrimp species as a food source for human consumption. The shrimp samples were collected from different locations of lower Gangetic region with different degree of industrial and anthropogenic activities and station 1 is exposed to maximum stress (in terms of pollution) from the adjacent port-cum-industrial zone of Haldia and industrial discharge of multifarious industries situated in and around the city of Calcutta (upstream to station 1) along the bank of the River Ganga.

Nutritional potentiality of earthworm (Perionyx excavatus) for substituting fishmeal used in local feed company in Bangladesh.

A.F.Md. Hasanuzzaman; Sk.Z. Hossian; M. Das

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 134-139

Abstract - Nutritional composition of wild earthworm (Perionyx excavatus) and fishmeal used by local fish-feed industry in Bangladesh was determined to evaluate the nutritionally replacement potentiality of this earthworm species for fishmeal mostly used in feed for aquaculture and other animal production. Except for moisture content, the proximate chemical values in P. excavatus did not differ significantly (P≥0.05) from that in fishmeal. On an average, the earthworm had lower protein content (46.57  0.97%) than fishmeal had (54.97  7.49 %). On the other hand, the mean lipid content (8.03  0.44 %) in this earthworm was found to be higher compared to fishmeal (7.97  1.60 %). The average ash content in the earthworm and fishmeal were 24.26  0.68 % and 24.13  8.44 %, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that this earthworm species had almost similar nutritional values to the fishmeal, and thus would be a potential source of animal protein in supplementing fishmeal. In an implication, year-round production of this earthworm species through standard mass culture system, and its radical use could play a pivotal role in sustainable fisheries and aquaculture production.

Occurrence of the chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (H. Milne Edwards) in South Iraq.

A.A. Hashim

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 140-145

Abstract - The distribution of the invasive Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in Shatt Al-Basrah Canal and Shatt Al-Arab River was investigated. The earlier published record of this species was in 2006 where only a single specimen was obtained from Shatt Al-Basrah Canal, but the species has long been observed in the region. The present work monitored the recent occurrence of the species where living and non living specimens were captured in large numbers. Although the species migrate to the sea for reproduction, it was not yet recorded from the North West Arabian Gulf region. Detailed description of the captured crabs is provided. Carapace width ranged from 53.4 to 56.6 mm and carapace length ranged from 56 to 62.4 mm. Recent rise in salinity or the change in water chemistry of south Iraq may play vital role in increasing the population of the mitten crab.

Assessment of the accumulation of some trace metals in whole body of fresh water shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti mesopotamica from Shatt Al-Arab River, Basrah, Iraq.

S.T.L. Al-Yaseri

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 146-153

Abstract - Concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Mn, Ni, Fe, Cu, and Zn) were determined in shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti mesopotamica collected from Shatt Al-Arab River, Basrah, Iraq. The elements content were determined in whole body biomass. The seasonal variations of the element concentrations, and the relationship between element concentrations in males and females were estimated in this study. Measurements were done to evaluate trace metals in shrimps tissues in Qurmat-Ali in Shatt Al-Arab River between summer (May- August) 2008 and spring (March and April) 2009. Samples were collected seasonally. Tissue samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Females accumulated the trace metals in their bodies in spring higher than other seasons. Males accumulated the trace metals in their bodies in Spring higher than other seasons, except for Pb and Mn. Regarding to concentrations; the highest values were 141.80 µg g-1 d.w in males and 136.79 µg g-1 d.w in females for Iron, while the lowest values were 2.49 µg g-1 d.w in males and 2.96 µg g-1 d.w in females for Lead. Regarding to seasons; in Summer the concentrations of trace metals were higher in males than in females, except Zn, in Autumn they were higher in males than in females, except Pb and Ni, in Winter they were higher in males than in females, except Pb and Zn, in Spring they were higher in males than in females, except Pb, Mn and Zn.

Some geotechnical soil properties of western bank of Khor Al-Zubair channel coast at Khor Al-Zubair Port location, southern Basrah, Iraq.

W.R. Muttashar

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 124-133

Abstract - Five Offshore Boreholes have been drilled by the National Construction Center at Basrah with cooperation the Marine Science Center/Basrah University, together with three Onshore Boreholes at the western bank of Khor Al-Zubair channel during July 2009. The drilling machine of Auger type has been used for drilling. Representative soil samples were taken at appropriate intervals ranged between 0.5 and 2.0 meters depth or where the stratum has been changed. Onshore boring depths ranged from 19.0 – 20.5 m, from natural ground surface, while, the offshore borings were from 7-16 m from the bed level. The depths of drilling reached the bedrock which is hard enough to require N-value of more than 50 blows. Standard Penetration Test (SPT) has been carried out for each 2m depths. Grain size analysis, moisture content, Atterberg limits of these soils were also determined. The results show that there are two main strata making up the coast bank of the navigational channel of Khor Al-Zubair. First is Marly silty Clay or fat clay soil which has of a thickness18 m, and gradually changes from very soft- m.stiff to stiff-v.stiff which belongs to the Hammar deposits. The second is Silty Sand layer which has two types of sandy soil, these are: (1) borrowed Back filled layer as surficial compaction soil with of a thickness 2.0 m, and (2) are interacted lenses stratum between the gray stiff silty clay and the hard brown silty clay in the near and onshore Boreholes which belongs to the Dibdiba formation.

Geochemical and mineralogical study of the fluvial deposits at Abul Khasib area, south east of Iraq.

S.H. Al-Ali

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 154-165

Abstract - Nine sediment samples were collected from three sites at the banks (levees) of Sarraji, Hamdan and Abul khasib creeks branching from Shatt Al-Arab river, southeastern Basrah with depths of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5m, respectively. Grain size distribution and statistical parameters revealed that the deposits are mainly composed of silt and clay with very small portion of sand, and have mud type texture. There is a tendency of increasing in silt percentage from Sarraji toward Abul Khasib area and decreasing in clay percentage with depth. Generally, the sediments are poorly sorted, coarse to strongly coarse skewed and platykurtic to very platykurtic deposited in quiet environment and low energy conditions. Chemical analysis showed that all samples have high concentration in SiO2 and CaO in comparison with Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, SO3, K2O and Na2O. These results are generally in agreement with the mineral composition. Mineralogically, the sediments understudy consists of quartz, feldspar, calcite, dolomite and gypsum. Clay minerals assemblages are: chlorite-montmorillonite mixed layers 37%, Illite 20%, Chlorite 18%, Kaolinite 14% and Palygorskite 11%. Increasing in Ch-Mont. percentage could be an evidence of high intensity of diagenetic alteration processes in depositional environment. The clay mineral assemblages proved that the recent sediments of the studied samples were derived from the basic igneous and metamorphic rocks, while acidic igneous and sedimentary rocks sources are less important. The deposition environment of these minerals may be characterized by an arid to semi-arid climate in the source area.

New records of two species of oligochaetes (Naididae): Pristina longiseta and P. macrochaeta from Iraq, with notes on their morphology and reproduction.

S.H. Al-Mayah; M.Y.M. Al-Abbad

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 166-175

Abstract- Individuals of the two species of oligochaetes: Pristina longiseta and P. macrochaeta were identified from samples of bryophyta from shallow water areas at Al-Assafia creek which is connected to Shatt Al-Arab River. This is the first report of the two species in Iraq. The characteristic features of the two species were studied, the first important of these is the presence of dorsal setae, from the second segment in P. longiseta and from the fourth segment in P. macrochaeta. The setae of the third segment in P. longiseta are longer than the others and called giant setae. There is a conspicuous Prostomium which extends to form proboscis. Reproduction is by transverse fission which is called Paratomy.

Sedimentological and environmental aspects of subsurface Basrah sediments-south Iraq.

M.H.A. Al-Jabberi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 176-187

Abstract - Twelve core samples were collected from 8, 10, 15, 21, 24.5 and 30 m depth from two holes in Basrah city. Textural analysis showed that the sediments of the first hole (Al-Ashar area) were siltyclay in nature at depth 8m , followed by clayeysilt at 10-21m (Saad square), whereas sand sediments were found at depths 24.5 to 30m. The statistical parameters of grain size analysis of the sediments of each hole indicated that the sediments at depth 8-21m were deposited under low energy environment. On the other hand the sediments at depth 24.5-30m were deposited under high-energy environments. The identified heavy minerals in the present study could be categorized into four groups; mica group, un-stable, ultra stable and meta-stable group minerals.

Water quality of the Iraqi southern marshes.

H.T. Al-Saad; M.A. Al-Hello; S.M. Al-Taein; A.A.Z. DouAbul

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 188-204

Abstract - After inundation, water quality surveys were designed and implemented during November 2005 to September 2006 at six locations, 4 in the Hor Al-Hammar (Al-Barga, Al-Nagara and Al-Baghdadia 1 and 2) the other 2 locations in Hor Al-Hwaaiza (Um Al-Warid and Um Al-Neiach). The sampling locations were selected to cover the distribution of the pollutants in these marshes. Physical and chemical stressors including the natural water quality parameters, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), temperature, salinity and pH as well as nutrients were studied. The mean range of the following parameters were recorded: pH (7.56-7.84), EC (1.29-3.22 mmohs/cm2), Ca (87.18-130.26 mg/l), Mg (60.35-111.17 mg/l), Cl (304.7-753.31 mg/l), TSS (11-38.58 mg/l), TDS (891-2040.42 mg/l), DO (5.16-10.05 mg/l), turbidity (4.57-39.03 FTU), salinity (0.53-1.7 ppt), water temperature (21.09-22.47 C°), air temperature (23.54-35.26 C°), SO4 (285.73-663.89 mg/l), HCO3 (204.39-255.22 mg/l), and TH (481.67-777.5 mg/l). These marshes are also rich in nutrient especially nitrate and phosphate which enhance their suitability for growth and billings of aquatic plants and phytoplankton. Also the seasonal variation of all the parameters were monitored during this study, and the result showed some fluctuation in some of them during different seasons at different locations of the marshes. The results obtained during this survey established important background information and a baseline for further restoration work and indicate reasonable signs of successful restoration.