ISSN: 1815-2058

Volume 23, Issue 1

Volume 23, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2008, Page 1-224


Bacteriological monitoring of waters of Southern Iraqi marshes.

E.A. Al-Emara; A.A. Al-Sulami; A.M.R. Al-Taee

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

A study was undertaken in the southern Iraqi marshes, including Al-Hammar marsh, Central marsh and Al-Hawizeh marsh. The study was extended from June- November 2006 (except October). Bacteriological analysis was done to determine the total plate count, total and fecal coliforms and streptococci as indicator bacteria and some presumptive pathogenic types of bacteria such as Salmonella sp., and Vibrio sp. The results showed that most samples were taken containing pathogenic bacteria, rendering the water unfit for human consumption.

Levels of trace metals in Shatt Al-Arab branches during spring and summer seasons, 2006.

Mithaqe S. Humadi; Amaal. A. Mahmood; Faris J.M. Al-Imarah

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 9-17

The levels of trace metals Co, Cu, Ni and Zn in both dissolved and particulate phases of water from six branches of Shatt Al-Arab River have been investigated during two seasons, spring and summer 2006 by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Levels recorded in μg/ml were: Co (0.019-0.078), Cu(0.163 - 0.240), Ni(0.035 – 0.094) and Zn (0.130–0.215) in dissolved phase during both seasons compared to particulate phase in which levels recorded in μg/g were Co (11.10 – 26.468), Cu(76.340- 376.543), Ni (7.778 – 150.676) and Zn (222.546 – 654.128). These levels were higher than most previous studies at the same sites. It is appeared that all studied branches are highly polluted and water appears highly turbid, viscose and greenish in color due to the expected abundance of phytoplanktons.

Epidemiology of larvae of Chrysomya bezziana in Buffalos in Basra province, South of Iraq.

Mushtag Abdul Mahdi Aziz Alhelfi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 19-25

The study include 250 waters buffalos from the marshes of Basrah during 2006. There 32 were positive cases of Chysomya benzziana larvae causes sub coetaneous myiases. This report consider the first recards of OWS in buffalo. The study showed that foot & mouth disease, tics & lice bite are among many other factors for OWS to but there eggs in small injury and causes myiases in mammals. The study shows that Chysomya benzziana larvae was resistan to water environment in which they live.

Effect of exposure of gas oil on the survival of Sesarma boulengeri from the Shatt Al-Arab river.

A.Y. AL-Adhub; Faris J.M. Al-Imarah; Sami T. Al-Yasiry

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 27-40

Laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the short term toxicity of gas oil in the survival rate of aquatic crab Sesarma boulengeri residing the intertidal zones in the banks of Shatt Al-Arab River. Crabs were collected by hand and put in a tank of 20 l capacity contains filtered water from Shatt Al-Arab River close to collection site. In the lab crabs were classified into 1) Juvenile male, 2) Mature males, 3) Juvenile females and 4) mature female. In separate containers, 10 of crabs of each class in triplicate were put in each container and exposed during summer season to different concentrations of gas oil, 0.5, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 ml/l in addition to control sample. The crabs were monitored every 24 hours and the mortalities were recorded numerically. The Juvenile male showed the highest resistance to gas oil followed by Juvenile female, then the mature males and finally mature females showed the lowest resistance to gas oil. Moreover, the toxicity of gas oil increased with exposure time.

Histological changes induced by copper ion on the gills of Liza abu (Heckel 1843).

M.A.R. Al-Doghachi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 41-48

Liza abu fish were exposed to different concentrations of copper.Gill damage resulting from exposure to sub lethal concentrations. Histological changes in the gills included hyperplasia of the gill tissue, some engorgement with blood of the secondary lamellae, epithelial separation, necrosis, and fusion of adjacent secondary lamellae.

Radioactivity of waters and sediments of the Southern Iraqi marshes and the main drain river.

Ammar K. Al-Ba; Master A. Ali

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 49-61

Environmental radioactivity is measurable in the water and sediments of selected areas of the southern Iraq marshes and Main Drain River. Chemilum in essences technique is used for the calculation radiation dose for the selected samples of the study. Its value was (4.13 μ rad /h). Solid state track detectors method is used, the detector (CR- 39) after putting this detector in the waters of the selected stations. After making the track, it is compared to control samples. Then, radiation dose is calculated which is (4.13 μ rad / h). It is found that the results of both methods are too close to one another through the limited of the calculation wrongs. To measure the radioactivity of the sediments gamma spectroscopy system with sensitivity level (0.5 Bq/kg) is used. The results showed that no radiation pollution is there in the samples selected, although the area contains some war machines that are destroyed with depleted uranium in the second gulf war. This goes in line with other studies, showing in dissolution water of depleted uranium as for the radioactivity in sediment samples, it sensed 137Cs with level (26.35 Bq /kg.) and results of uranium 238 U. With depleted uranium in the second gulf war. These accords with the local and international studies concerning the dissolution of depleted uranium in water. for knowing the type of isotopes in the water of the natural marshes gamma spectroscopy is used, using sodium conter. it is found that the most important isotope Cs-137, which is one of the radioactive isotopes resulted from the nuclear weapone experiments on the surface of the earth and result of uranium U- 238.

Physiochemical behavior of carbonate minerals in soils, sediments and waters of tidal flats, North West Arabian Gulf and the Shatt Al-Arab.

B.N. Al-Badran; K.M. Awad; D.K. Al-Kazaeh

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 63-76

Physiochemical behiver of carbonate minerals in soils, sediments and water of tidal flats northern west part of Arabian Gulf and Shatt Al-Arab river is important for classification carbonate minerals. A laboratory experiment was conducted by using concentration from sodium bicarbonate solution (0.008, 0.03, 0.09, 0.15, 0.18, 0.24) mol.liter-1 were mixed calcium chloride 0.01 mol.liter-1 treated with different volume from sodium chloride to obtained fixed ionic strength. This solution has been incubated at two temperature degrees (15,30 c○) in six different time (24, 48, 72, 100, 200, 300, 600 h) and then Ph, E.C, Ca+2, HCO3 total alkinity) have been measured in these solutions composition Davies & Jones or Reddy & Nancollass were used to describe the mechanical of carbonate minerals precipitation. It is consisted of suddenly precipitation of calcium carbonate and the crystal growth formation. Precipitation coefficient rate for the first stage is more than the second stage.

Levels of dissolved and particulate petroleum hydrocarbons in Shatt Al-Arab River, Southern Basrah, Iraq.

Najah A. Hussain; Abdul-Hussain Y. Al-Adhub; Abbas A. Hantoush

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 77-96

The present study concerned with the seasonal variations in the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in water at six stations along Shatt Al-Arab River which are (Al-Qurnah, Al-Sindibad, Al-Ashar, Abu-Floos, Al-Sibah and Al-Fao). Samples were collected seasonally during the period from April 2004 (Spring season) to January 2005 (Winter season). The concentrations of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in water ranged from 2.247 μg/l (Spring) in Al-Qurnah station to 50.232 μg/l (Autumn) in Al-Ashar station. Also, the concentrations of particulate petroleum hydrocarbons in water ranged from 2.871 μg/g dry wt. (Summer) in Al-Qurnah station to 37.077 μg/g dry wt. (Autumn) in Al-Ashar station. The lipid’s content in suspended matter ranged from 2.837 % (Winter) in Al-Qurnah station to 44.912 % (Al-Ashar station) and 42.048 % (Abu-Floos station) during Autumn season. The average concentrations of chlorophyll (a) in water range from 0.70 mg/m3 (Winter) in Al-Qurnah station to (37.21 and 28.61) mg/m3 (Autumn) in Al-Ashar station and Abu-Floos station, respectively. Besides that, significant and non-significant correlation value were found between the (TPH) concentrations and content of each chlorophyll (a) and lipids.

Growth of larvae of Bunnie Barbus sharpeyi (Gunther, 1874) under laboratory conditions.

Fawzi M. Hameed; Khassan A. Kamel; Mustafa A. Al- Mukhtar; Aamer A. Jaber; Jassim H. Saleh

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 97-105

Larvae of Bunnie were reared under laboratory conditions by using semi closed system. Total Length and wet weight of larvae were measured weekly. Larvae were fed on live food in first week, and then larvae fed on artificial food. Some biotic factors represented by water temperature, oxygen and pH were recorded. The results showed the final total length of larvae was 14.2 mm, final wet weight of 16.4 mg at the end of experiment extends for 28 days. Relative growth and specific growth rate were estimated to be 368.75% and 5.51% /day respectively.

Impacts of salinity and food on survival of larvae of the shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense.

H.SH.D. Al-Kanaany; K.K.S. Al-Khafaji

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 107-115

Impacts of salinity and food on survival of larvae of shrimps (Macrobrachium nipponense), were studied. Larvae were cultured under laboratory conditions since their release from their adults that were brought from the Shatt Al-Arab River at Garmat Ali region. Larvae at early development stages were subjected to ascending concentration of salinity (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 %) to determine the differences in survival ratio. High survival rates were found in 5, 10, 15 %. No salinity influence occurred on development and feeding concentration higher than 15 %. The result showed that tolerance of larvae of species was greater in earlier stages. It was found that larvae preferred food on newly hatched Artemia, as a result of highest survival rates obtained at 15 %.

The effect of freezing storage on the chemical and physical composition of meat of male duck and goose.

Munir A. Jasim; Saher Sabih George

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 117-128

A Study was carried out on male Duck and Geese at age 12 and 16 weeks respectively carcasses were slaughtered and the feathers were removed and intestines were taken off, then they were cut in to main cuttings leg and breast and warped by polyethylen. A study was then made on the chemical and physical properties were followed for frozen meat leg and Goose in both ducks and geese at -18 ± 2 Cº for 0.15, 30.45, 60, 75, and 90 days and the results were analyzed statistically to determine the effect of meat type (source), period of storage and the interference among them on the a mean value by adapting R.L.S.D. at P<0.05. there was a significant increase at level P<0.05 in total volatile nitrogen and free fatty acid with increasing the frozen storage period the means dropped significantly at level P<0.05 through out these periods 0.15 and 30 days of frozen storage then they stored to increase significantly at level P<0.05 at periods 45, 60, 75 and 90 days by freezing storage for both pH and Water Holding Capacity, while there were no significant differences on pH and Water Holding Capacity depending on the meat type for leg and breast for duck and geese.

Food and feeding habits of the larval and young stages of Barbus sharpeyi (Gunther, 1874) reared in earthen ponds.

S.M; Abdullah; Mahdi; A.A; M.A; Al-Mokhtar; KH.W; Farnar

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 129-147

Feeding and feeding habits of larvae (Barbus sharpeyi) studied after 7 days of hatching .in order to investigate the natural food and feeding habits of larvae from this stage until fingerling. The study started during March to the end of October 2006. Fullness index and food item percentage were determined for each larvae using point and Numerical methods. The environmental parameter for the ponds shows that all of the parameters were suitable for the culture of Bunnei. The result showed that a significant shift in food habits was occurred according to age. In the first weeks only plants remain and green algae (Oscillatoria sp., Cladophora sp., Spirogyra sp.) occurred with a percent of 23%, protozoa (Euglena sp.-Volvox sp.) 49.3% with some artificial food 9.9% and unidentified materials 9.4%. During the fifth week the food items showed increase in the percent of phytoplankton (Nitzschia sp., Gymnodinium sp., Navicula sp., Fragilaria sp., Diatoma sp., ladophora sp., Cyclotella sp. and Keratella sp.), and zooplankton (Rotifera-Copepoda) both with 12.7%, crustacean (Trichotria sp., Brachionus sp., Moina sp., cartia sp.) and shrimp larvae (Metapenaus sp.) 13.4%. All these items were appeared during the last months, and increased during the last fifth rearing month (May) to reach 35%. During the last months of the study there was increase in the occurrences of aquatic remains, filamentous algae and Alpha alpha remains, which was used by the farmer as daily supplementary food in the last months of the study. All food and feeding habits were exhibits fluctuations with age, length and environmental conditions.

Rearing of the larvae of Bunni (Barbus sharpeyi) on live under laboratory condition.

M.H. Ali; M.F. Abaas; S.S. Al-Noor; A.H. Ghazi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 149-165

Indoor rearing of newly hatched Bunni larvae Barbus sharpeyi was carried out at the Marine Science Center in April 2005. Larvae were reared under controlled condition. These larvae fed on three food types, live food: the Rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, the Cladocera Moina affinis, and artificial food NRD. The results showed that rearing of larvae during 28 days gave high growth rate and survival rate of fish larvae fed on live food compared with those fed on artificial feed. The average of length and weight of fish larvae fed on B. calyciflorus were 41.9 mm /larvae and 113.5 mg /larvae, respectively, whereas the average of lengths and weights of larvae fed on A. franciscana were 37.7mm / larvae and 110.2 mg / larvae, respectively, and those fed on M. affinis were 33.5 mm / larvae and 94.6 mg / larvae in terms of length and weight, respectively. The average length and weight result from artificial food NRD, were 28.4 mm / larvae and 83.6 mg / larvae, respectively. The survival rate was higher on rotifer treatment (82.5 %), whereas lower values were recorded (75.9, 74.6 and 62.4 %) for A. franciscana, M. affinis and NRD, respectively.

A determination of nickel in waters of Shatt Al-Arab river by Atomic Absorption and Spectrophotometery.

Ala; a A. Mezher; Faris J.M. Al-Imarah; Muayad H. Mohammad

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 167-179

In this study, the metallic element Nickel has been determined in water samples from selected stations along the southern part of Shatt Al-Arab river which extended from: 1) Garmat Ali, 2) Mhelah in Abu Al-Khaseeb, 3) the discharging point of Karon river in Shatt Al-Arab River, 4) Al-Seebah in front of Abadan refinery and 5) Al-Fao, the point between Al-Nagha'ah and the Costumer Station. A spectroscopic method was adopted for determination of nickel after the formation of complex between nickel ion and porpharine compound which already prepared from the reaction between pyrrole and benzaldehyde (0.8 moles each) by soxhlet in prop ionic acid for 30 minutes. Measurements were performed at wave length 515 nm. For comparison and accuracy detection of this method another measurements were done by Atomic Absorption Technique. Values recorded spectrophotometerically for nickel were: 0.0860, 0.064, 0.063, 0.107 and 0.0865 mg/l for the stations 1-5 respectively compared with values 0.0865, 0.065, 0.065, 0.1085 and 0.0868 mg/l for the same stations respectively. As it is expected, the highest level of nickel was recorded in station 4 which is affected by discharging effluent from Abadan refinery. The study revealed that this complex is suitable for the determination of Nickel in water samples.

The interaction between water masses of the marshes and the Shatt Al-Arab river (South of Iraq).

A.A. Al-Mahdi; S.S. Abdullah; H.K. Al- Mahmood

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 181-199

The aim of this study is to explain the role of the discharge of the input Rivers from north on the Water Balance of the Al-Hawza and Qurna Marshes and explain the effect of theses Marshes on Shatt Al-Arab Water quality. The Study period include several years before and after drying the marshes. The Results show that the internal quantities of the water after the rehabilitation of Marshes were increasing simultaneous, second there was a difference in salinity between the internal in comparison with external masses of water from Hor Al-Hammar, located in Garmat Ali, Third, because the effect of the dried weather and the relatively shallow at the full areas. That leads to a weak exchange between Marshes and Shatt Al-Arab River.

Al-Hammar marsh as nursery and feeding ground for some marine fish species.

A.T. Yasin; K.H. Younis; M.T. Al-Okailee; F.M. Mutlak

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 201-214

Ten marine fish species were collected from Eastern Al-Hammar marshes during the period, from November 2004 to October 2005 (location the between Al-Mashab and Al-Naggara). The lowest number (one species) was collected in January and the highest (eight species) in April and June. The more dominant species was Tenualosa ilisha, which comprised the vast number of the marine individuals. Most of the fishes sampled were juveniles, especially the individuals of T. ilisha, Thryssa mystax and Liza carinata. Food analysis showed that more the percentages of stomachs food-containing were more than 96%. Stomachs of T. ilisha, L. carinata and L. subviridis were diatoms, algae and zooplankton as well as organic and inorganic materials while stomachs of T. mystax and Bathygobius fuscus contained zooplankton, insects, small fishes and shrimps. The East Al-Hammar marshes were considered as nursery (protection and feeding) for several marine juveniles species.

The study of radioactivity in food chain of the environmental system in the drain river, Basrah, Iraq.

Master .A. Ali

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 215-224

The paper deals with the measurement of environment radiation level of the main drain –south of Iraq - Basrah, during July and August 2006. Chemulumensence and gamma spectroscopy of sensitivity level (0.5Bq/kg) are used. Three different sites are chosen for the present study; those are the three sites that witness condensed military operation during the second Gulf war 1991 and the occupation war of Iraq 2003. The study shows that the environmental system of the main drain-south of Iraq – Basrah is void of radiation pollution, though some destructed war machine there destroyed by depleted uranium in the area of the study, especially that while concerns distilled water and water planets and fishes, except what is seen of the remains of simple radiation pollution, represented by certain concentration of the Cs 137, and some result of the resolution of the uranium series 238.