ISSN: 1815-2058

Volume 23, Issue 2

Volume 23, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2008, Page 225-453


Some biological aspects of Solea elongata from the Shatt Al-Arab estuary, North West Arabian Gulf.

A.T. Yaseen; A.A. Jaber; N.A. Hussain; A.R.M. Mohamed

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 225-236

Aspects of the biology of 1086 Solea elongata from the Shatt Al-Arab Estuary, Northwest Arabian Gulf were described during for the period Jun. to Dec. 2000. The length frequency distribution of the whole sample exhibited unimodal distribution; one peak observed at length 90 mm indicates that catches were exclusively based mainly on one year-class individuals. S. elongata had not been caught during November. Length-Weight relationship was found to be: W= 2.6 x 10-6 L 3.285. Growth rate was estimated to reach the length 100-109 in 1.1 year. Feeding activity values ranged from 50 to 85 %, while the minimum feeding intensity ratio was 0.4 point/fish and the maximum 3.2 point/fish. Diet of S. elongata was exclusively on molluscs (bivalves, Bithynia sp.).

Uptake-release of pollutant by hilsa shad Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton-Buchanan) fish collected from southern Iraq.

Maha K. Zukhair; Ibrahem M. Abd; Ali A. DouAbul; Hamid T. Al-Saad

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 237-255

The up stream spawning migration of Hilisa Shad, Tenulosa ilisah from the Arbian gulf to the Shatt Al-Arab river began during early march and ended during late October; the bulk of migration was between the middle of April and June. Samples of these fish were collected from different locations (Shatt Al-Arab river estuary, North-West Arabian Gulf, and Mesopotamian Marshes). The present study was designed to give some insight to test the ability of Sbuor to absorb/concentrate pollutants. To achieve this, different age group were collected from March- September 2006. Fish muscles as well as gonads were taken, freeze-dried and trace organics were extracted and subjected to spectrofluorometric and gas chromatography analysis. Trace metal concentrations in Sbuor tissues were determined by Automic Absorption after digestion with strong acids. Result obtained in this study showed that Sbuor contain measurable amount of hydrocarbons. The compounds seem to be derived from different sources, while the concentrations of trace metals are acceptable although there was slight increase in the concentrations of some of these metals. Both concentrations of hydrocarbons and trace metals dose not represent a hazard on human health.

Copper and zinc desorption from some Iraqi marsh soils.

Methaq S. Al-Farjawi; Dunia K. Khasaf; Haifa J. Al-Tamimi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 257-268

A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effect of ionic strength (0.01 and 0.1 M), solution temperature (15 and 30oC) and shaking time (1, 24, and 96 hours) on copper and zinc desorption from five Iraqi soil samples. Results indicated that copper and zinc desorption was increased with increasing time and temperature, while their desorption was decreased with increasing ionic strength. Results proved the suitability of first order equation and power function equation for copper and zinc desorption from some Iraqi soil samples.

the effect of Hamatopeduncularia sp. and Caligus sp. on some blood parameters of Arius bilineatus (Val., 1840).

Essa T. Mohamad; Muna M. Jori

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 269-277

The effect of two parasites Hamatopeduncularia sp. and Caligus sp. on some blood parameters of 121 marine catfish (Ariidae) Arius bilineatus were studied. The results showed that all blood parameters were higher in healthy fishes than those of infected ones, except W.B.C. counts. In all levels of infections there were a reduction in P.C.V., Hb. and R.B.C. counts and increased in W.B.C. counts. Male fishes have higher values than females either in healthy and infected status.

Levels of some trace metals in falling dust at Basrah governorate, Southern Iraq.

Seta A. K. Garabedian

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 279-286

Cu, Fe, Mn & Ni trace metals in falling dust were estimated in seven selected locations in Basrah governorate, Southern Iraq, 1- Qurna, 2-Al- Ma'aqil, 3-Shatt Al-Arab Sector, 4- Abu Al-Khaseeb, 5-Al-Fao, 6 -Al-Zubair, & 7- Safwan. Samples were collected for the period March-April 2007, and trace metals were determined by atomic absorption technique after digestion treatments with mixed acids of HNO3 & HClO4. The highest concentrations of trace metals recorded were, 9312.68 ppm (Fe) in Qurna, 350.17 ppm (Cu) in Al-Ma'aqil, 300.79 ppm (Mn) in Qurna and 76.31 (Ni) in Al-Ma'aqil, while lower values were 0.25 ppm (Cu) in Safwan, 2256.98 ppm (Fe) in Al-Zubair, 178.03 ppm (Mn) in Abu Al-Khaseeb and ND (Ni) in Al-Fao. Cu, Fe, Mn & Ni were highly correlated with each other.

Al-Najebia power station plant effluents and it's impact on physico-chemical characteristics of Garmat Ali canal.

Jabbar K. Abdul-Hassan

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 287-304

The physico-chemical characteristics and water quality near thermal effluents of Al-Najebia electrical power station on Garmat Ali canal have been investigated. Seasonal samples were taken through low tide (from summer, 2007 till winter, 2008). Three stations were chosen, serious one was S2 (located closer to the thermal discharge point), these effects were extended to 625 m east far from S2. The effects were reached the highest through summer season at S2 than S3. The highest water temperature was 42C° and the differences between high water temperature between S2 and S3 was 9C° through summer season, high pH values and salinity were 8.3 and 2.2 (ppt) at S2 respectively. Very sharp decline of dissolved oxygen (3.9 mg/l) was noted at S2 and nitrite values (0.23 as µg- at N/l) was noted at S1, and high value of BOD was 4.6 mg/l at S2, the highest value of alkalinity was 135 mg/l at S2 through summer season. Maximum values of hardness (mg/l as CaCO3) calcium and magnesium (mg/l) were 760, 425 and 365 respectively; TDS was 1710 mg/l at S2 through summer season. Maximum values of nitrite and nitrate (as µg- at N/l) were 1.30 and 35 at S2 due to many bio-chemical reactions with were happened during high water temperatures.

Monitoring of hydrocarbons in Shatt Al-Arab river by using some species of molluscs.

Abdul-Hussain Y. Al-Adhub; Hamid T. Al-Saad; Wisam A. Farid

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 305-319

This study comprises the monitoring of hydrocarbons in Shatt Al-Arab river water by using the native seven species of molluscs as bioindicators. These species are the snails, Lymnaea auricularia, Theodoxus jordani, Physa acuta, Melanopsis nodosa, Melanoides tuberculata and the bivalves, Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula fluminalis. The species of molluscs are collected from different locations of Shatt Al – Arab river (along the region extended from Abu–Al-Khasib to Garmat-Ali) during 2004 and 2005. Each species consisted of at least 3500 adult of uniform size of individuals. The hydrocarbons which extracted from these species of molluscs were analyzed by spectroflurometer. The concentrations of total hydrocarbons in these species of Shatt Al–Arab river ranged from 1.93 μg/ g dry weight in the T. jordani to 26.56 μg/ g dry weight in the C. fluminea. The lowest fat content was in T. jordani (0.33 mg /g) and the highest was in C. fluminea (0.98 mg /g). Significant relationships were obtained between the fat contents and hydrocarbons concentrations in the tissues of these species of molluscs (r = 0.8 - 0.9).

Oil spill in Khor Al-Zubair: A case study.

Abdel Hussain Aleal; Ibrahem M. Abd; Habeeb Khazim; Ahmed Majeed; Satar Aziz; Hamid T. Al-Saad

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 321-332

In 22 August 2006 the tanker BFC2 carried 4750 tons of Basrah Crude oil was crash in khor Al-Zubair area, this lead to make a crack with a length of 1.5 meter in bump room of the tanker and oil spilled about (10-15 tones) from the cargo pump tanker immediately making a large spill in this important area, To study oil spill in this area water, sediment and were taken. Also Composite samples of fish species (beyah) Liza subviridis and (Sheka) Thryssa mystax and two species of shrimps Metapenaeus affinis and Exopalaemon styliferus with plant samples salicornia herbacea were collected at different locations during the study period, High concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (478.2 μg/ l and 38.5 μg/g) were recorded in water and sediments. Also, highest level of total petroleum hydrocarbons were showed in fish (59.46 μg/g in Thryssa mystax), shrimps (121.9 μg/g in Metapenaeus affinis) and plants (360.7 μg/g in Salicornia herbacea). The present data were higher than the early data in the same area, and higher in the range of concentrations in water in other site of the world.

Some mechanical properties of sandy gypseferous soils in Rumaila-Khor Al-Zubair area, Southern Iraq.

a Khalid Kadhum; Shema; Muhammad J. Kadhum; Abdul-Mutalib H. Al-Marsoumi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 333-347

Six gypseferous soil samples were collected from Rumaila to Khor Al-Zubair areas, Didibba Desert west of Basrah city, Southern Iraq. These soil are gypseous in nature with an average gypsum content of 15.5% W/w The mineralogical analyses revealed that they are consisting of quartz, gypsum, carbonate, and feldspar. The grain size analysis showed that the sand fraction form more than 80% of soil samples understudy. Several geotechnical properties were determined. The testing program comprises the determination of the effect of the different gypsum contents on the shear strength parameters; cohesion and internal friction angle of the gypseferous soils under consideration. Furthermore, the testing program exhibits the cohesion increases as gypsum contents increases up to 20% then decreases at 30%. The results indicate that the improvement and deterioration of cohesion and shearing strength of soils are a result of the gypsum dual role, firstly bonding the soil particles, causing the and soil enhancement ( up to 20% added gypsum), and secondly causing the flocculation of soil particles leading to the deterioration (More than 20% added gypsum) of cohesion and shear strength of the gypseferous soils.

The genus Lymnaea (Lamarck, 1799) from Southern Mesopotamia: Are the morphological and anatomical studies enough to solve its complexity?

Satar A. Gmais; Najem M. Aziz; Khaled Kh. Al-Khafaji; al G. Yasser; Ama; Murtada D. Naser

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 349-362

Many different morphs of the subgenus Radix sp were morphologically and anatomically studied from different sites of Garmat Ali river, Al-Hammar marshes and some pools near Garmat Ali river. The present study reveals that there is no real Lymnaea auricularia in Mesopotamia region, and possibly, L. cor, L. gedrosiana, L. canalifera and L. euphratica, represent the molluscs fauna of Mesopotamia. However, the DNA sequences of this cryptic subgenus is required to complete our view about it.

Concentrations of copper, cadmium, cobalt, manganese, nickel and lead in the muscles of freshwater fishes, Crassius crassius, Aspius vorax and Barbus luteus colleted from Al-Hammar marsh (South of Iraq).

Ibraheim A. Abd; Maha K.Zukhair; Jabbar K. Abdul-Hassn; Hamid T. Al-Saad

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 363-376

To assess the significance of metals in fishes from Al-Hammer marsh (South of Iraq), preliminary data is presented on concentrations of Cu, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni and Pb in tissues of three fresh water fishes (Crassius crassius, Aspius vorax and Barbus luteus) collected in 2006-2007 seasonally period. Copper range from Below detection limit (BDL) in B. luteus tissues for all sampling seasons to 4.12 (µg/g. dw) in the muscles, for Cd, Co and Ni were range between BDL to 24.49 Cd, 4.86 (µg/g. dw) in all tissues and 88.85 Ni (µg/g. dw) in the A. vorax and B. luteus muscles respectively. Metal concentrations seemed to be increased through hot periods (summer and spring) compared with cold periods (autumn and winter), during data analyses, C. crassius tend to accumulate more concentration of all study metals than A. vorax and B. luteus.

New record of Bestiolina arabica Ali et al., 2007 (Calanoida: Copepoda) from Khor Al-Zubair canal and Shatt Al-Arab river, Southern Iraq.

T.A. Khalaf

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 377-386

Bestiolina arabica, is calanoid copepod belonging to the family Paracalanidae, recorded for the first time from the brackish waters of Khor Al-Zubair canal, and Shatt Al-Arab River Southern Iraq. Measurements, illustrations, photos, remarks, dominance and ecology are demonstrated, as well as specimens of B. arabica from Iraqi marine and brackish waters were comparing with those of NW Arabian Gulf.

The use of air flow for hatchings of the eggs of bunni (Barbus sharpeyi) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Abdul Hussein H. Ghazi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 387-398

Air flow and circulating water system were used in hatching eggs of bunni (B. sharpeyi) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The eggs were placed in a funnel with the air and water underneath. Present study showed the efficiency of this method which is better than classic method (circulation water system). The hatching percentage and hatching period of B. sharpeyi by using air flow were 72 % and 60 hr., respectively, while in C. carpio they were 84% and 56 hr. respectively.Whereas the hatchery percentage and hatching period with the use of circulating water system for B. sharpeyi were 57% and 65 hr., respectively, and 80 % and 62 hr. for C. carpio. The air flow method is characterized by reduced amount water used; lower of energy and better protection of eggs from disease, especially fungi.

Morphology of gill rakers and locomotory muscles of Otolith ruber.

Akeel J. Mansour

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 399-417

The present study deals with some biological the gill rakers morphology, number, structure and filtration capacity of gill rakers of one species of marine Teleosts i.e. Otolith ruber (Schneider, 1801) and study of proportion of the red and white muscle fibers and distributed in body regions in O. ruber. Gills of Otolith ruber have low number of gill rakers ranged (7-24.62) in length groups (140-260 mm), and the gills have different filtration capacity, It’s ranged (35.65-146.36 mm2) in length groups (140-260 mm). The length and number of gill rakers were affected on the filtration capacity of gills. The related results of locomotive activity showed the muscular tissue have two main types of muscles (Red and White Muscle fibers). These muscles differ in the location and proportion of muscle fibers, in the location of studied body regions (R1 and R2). The proportions of red muscle fibers were less than the white muscle fibers in (R1 and R2). The red muscle fibers are ranged (5.23-14.87 %) but white muscle fibers are ranged (84.21-94.52 %) in length groups (140-260 mm).the result showed increase of proportion of red muscle fibers in the posterior region (Caudal peduncle) and the values obtained in this study on this type of fishes. It’s can be put these types of fishes which belong to intermediate activity.

The geochemical distribution of trace metals in Shatt Al-Arab river sediments.

M.A. Faraj; B.N. Albadran; W.F. Hassan

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 419-436

The geochemical distribution and fractionation of trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) in Shatt Al-Arab water and sediments River has been investigated. Seven sampling stations were chosen, from Qurna to Al-Faw during spring 2004 to winter 2005. The water samples were collected from near the river bed, whereas sediments samples from the river bed by using hand-push corer to get undisturbed samples along the vertical variation (0-2, 2-4, 4-6 cm). Total concentrations of above metals were determined in water and sediments samples. The results showed that the concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe in sediment samples were 263.47, 24.52, 149.28, 36.61, 1679.26, and 14443.29 mg.kg-1 respectively. Pb and Cd concentrations were found to be much higher than normal background values. Moreover seasonal and location variation in metals concentration where recorded. The significant variation in the Pb and Cd concentration in sediments is documented during winter and spring seasons, i.e. season of high discharge, whereas, the Cu and Zn concentration increases during the summer, which may be effected by the anthropogenic factor. According to the geoaccummulation index (Igeo), the sediments of Shatt Al-Arab River are polluted at very high risk by Pb and Cd, and unpolluted by Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe.

Ecological and morphological study of Iraqi Southern marshes.

Aimen A.K. Al-Rubaie

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 437-453

Southern marshlands and its surroundings area distinguished by freshwater environment dominance. Draining mechanism of southern Iraqi marshland wase dependas on the previews hydraulic constructions established on the Tigris-Euphrates river coerces-such as of these constructions is Al-Hindayah dilce on Euphrates river Al-Kut daw on Tigris river and earthn dike between Al-Gurnah and Al-Mudainah Cities near Al-Hammar marsh. This study describes the existing env. and evaluating a geomorphological setting of Southern marshland, accomplished with a principle soil analysis, which medicating an increasing of organs matter, CaCO3 and EC values, and decries of pH. This study also mention to dreamy processes and environmental problems dire to marshland drying. A tectonic and morphological mtermalat they are also included.