ISSN: 1815-2058

Volume 22, Issue 1

Volume 22, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2007, Page 1-146

Distribution and levels of trace metals in the Red sea coasts and comparison with their levels in the Arabian Gulf.

M.A.R. Saeed; F.J.M. Al-Imarah; H.T. Al-Saad

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-16

The marine environment of Seas is suffered from pollution by trace metals as well as petroleum hydrocarbons from different sources. Different studies were conducted to evaluate the levels of trace metals, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in water, sediments, plants, fishes and shrimps from Red Sea and Arabian Gulf coasts. Most of these studies revealed that levels of trace metals were acceptable when compared with world wide standards and comparable to those for unpolluted environments. Higher concentrations of trace metals in the environmental media or biota were observed close to the coastal cities due to anthropogenic activities, while lower values were reported for remote areas. Dissolved trace metals in µ g/l reported were: 0.19,0.04-2.65, 0.02 (Cd), 0.21, 0.024-29.05, ND (Cr), 0.47, 5.32-174, 7.0 (Cu), 173, 3.48- 206.50, 40 (Fe), 1.52, 0.12-8.05, 7.00 (Mn), 2.85, 0.12- 22.43, 1.66 (Ni), 0.23, 0.10-2.85, 3.00 (Pb) and 0.82, 0.0-9.45, 20 (Zn) in coastal waters of Arabian Gulf, Red Sea and World wide. Exceptions were reported for certain studies such as recording of high concentration of mercury in the edible flesh of the fish Hammrah from North West Arabian Gulf waters which explained on the basis of natural sources. Elevated levels of lead from automobile emission were reported in bottom surface sediments nearby Kuwaiti coasts.

Effect of some organophosphorus inseticides on the percentage of total lipid contents in the ovary and gonads of Cyprinus carpio.

Mehdi K. Jaber; Faris J.M. Al-Imarah; Sophia A. Aitte

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 17-23

The effect of some types of organophosphorous insecticides upon the percentage of total lipid content of the gonads in C. carpio after a periods of exposing to a concentrations of 2, 4, and 6 ppm, for a periods of 7 days to each of Nogos, Malathion and Diazinon. Elevation was found in the values of total lipid content for all concentration in comparison with control. A decrease in the lipid content was found in ovary and gonad tissues, and it is found that ovary were more sensitive than gonads under the effect of all used insecticides, and the effect of Nogos is found more toxic than Malathion and Diazinon as recorded mean of decrease was high than recording decrease with other insecticides.

The effectiveness of the carnivorous fishes on food resources in the Northwest Arabian Gulf

U.A. Yousif; N.A. Hussain; A.R.M. Mohamed

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 25-36

The effectiveness of thirteen carnivorous fish species on food resources in Iraqi marine waters, northwest Arabian Gulf were studied from July 1998 to June 1999. The results revealed that specialization or selectivity is common trend among predators examined, depending mainly upon shrimps and small fishes. Specialized feeding indicates a clear partitioning of food resources among components. The most effective fish species on shrimp and fish reserve were Polynemus sextarius and Saurida tumbil respectively. Shrimps seem to be the most important food item than fishes and others in the study area.

Ecological studies of three west Algerian rivers: The river Tafna and its tributary the river Remshy.

K. Benson-Evans; P. Randerson; M.S. Al-Asadi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 37-57

Limnological studies of Tafna Watershed were carried out on aquatic bodies of the coastal north-west Algeria. Tafna Watershed near the Morrocan boarder was chosen, two sampling sites were appointed out in this investigation, on Beni-Saf, the River Tafna, a river of 110Km long and one of its tributaries, on Telemssan, the River Remshy. Samples were taken monthly during 2 years (1986-1988), during which the phisco-chemical were studied. The lowest air (15°C) and water temperatures (10°C) were recorded in January and the highest (30°C) in September for both air and water temperatures. The hydrogen ion concentration investigation samples were slightly alkaline lying between (pH7.5 and 8.6). Electrical conductivity (EC) values ranged between 56 and 4,960 µS cm-2; being higher in the River Tafna than in the River Remshy. Dissolved oxygen (DO) values showed that the River Tafna and River Remshy were both well oxygenated (7.5-13.6mg l-1). The minimum biological oxygen demand (BOD) value was recorded (2mg l-1) in September and maximum (7.8mg l-1) in May. Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) values ranged from 5.09 mg l-1 in July and 11.78 mg l-1 in March. Suspended solids (SS) were high during the warm months and low in the cold months with a negative correlation with water turbidity WT. Average values of total residue (TR), fixed total residue (FTR), volatile matter (VM), total hardness (TH), calcium hardness (CaH) and silica (SiO3-Si) were higher at the River Tafna than at the Tributary River Remshy. While the average values current velocity (CV), water turbidity (WT), dissolved oxygen (DO), oxygen percentage saturation (OPS), biochemical demand (BOD), magnesium hardness (MgH), chloride, inorganic nitrogen contents and phosphorus were more at the tributary than at the river. Increase the chloride was coincided with increase of EC and DO at River Tafna. Total, calcium and magnesium hardness had a negative correlation with TR, FTR and VM. The contents of the three later parameters, DO, OPS, BOD, SS, and DOM were high during the cold months and low during the hot months at the study period. Fluctuations were likely to be more at river rather than at the tributary.

Determination of selenium in fish by hydride generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

Amal A. Mahdi; Hassan T. Abdulsahib; Nadhum A.N. Awad

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 59-70

Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometric method was used for the determination of selenium in fish. Different parts of the most important six species of fish Cyprins carpio, Barbus luteus, Liza abu, Tilapia zillii, Barbus sharpeyi and Tenaulosa ilisha is the diet of the local population , have been analyzed after wet destruction with a mixture of concentrated acids (HClO4/HNO3).Tissue analysis of Barbus sharpeyi reveals that liver accumulates the highest amount of selenium .No correlations were observed between selenium levels in the fish and season of collection, length, sex and age of fish. . The values obtained are compared with literature data and selenium contents in fish muscle.

Fungi associated with the crab Sesarma boulengeri Calman from Shatt Al-Arab river, Basrah -Iraq.

Fadhil J. Farhan; Abdul- Hafiz Al-Duboon

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 71-80

The fungal species isolated from crab (Sesarma boulengeri Calman) and from its environment (mud) with their colony count, frequency, and occurrence were illustrated. The results of cultured samples revealed that out of 50 cultivated crabs, 32 species belong to 15 genera of fungi imperfecti, 2 ascomycetes species, and one yeast like fungi, besides of unidentified yeasts and black, brown, yellow, and white sterile mycelia were isolated on both SDA and PDA. The occurrence ranged between 6-100% on crab samples, while from mud samples only 12 species of fungi imperfecti with several isolates of black, brown, and white mycelia sterilia were isolated The colony forming units (CFU)/ crab reached 8097 while those from mud were 5452/gm. Aspergillus terreus and Fusarium sacchari showed the higher colony count (1428 and 1376 colonies/ crab, respectively) while from mud samples, these species showed 134 and 1000 colonies/gm respectively. Acremonium blochii was isolated from mud only with colony count of 334 colonies/gm. The mostly frequent fungal species on crab was A. terreus (100%) followed by F. sacchari (96%) and Curvularia senegalensis (94%) with frequency of 17.64%, 17.00% and 8.31%, respectively, while from mud, F. sacchari and Acremonium potroni were the most frequent species isolated (18.3%). The least occurred species were Acremonium sp., A. strictum, and Scytalidium sp. (6%) with the frequency of 0.09%, 0.09% and 0.19%, respectively.

Environmental assessment of trace metals pollution in sediment of Khor Al-Zubair, Iraq.

M.K. Zuhkair; M.A. Al-Hello; I.A. Abd; H.T. Al-Saad

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 81-92

The purpose of this study was determined and assesses the concentrations of some trace metals in surface sediment from different locations of Khor Al-Zubair sediment during 2006. Samples of sediment were collected from seven stations, treated and analyzed for Cobalt, manganese, Nickel, Iron, Copper and Zinc by Atomic Absorption Spectrometric analysis. The Range and average concentrations measured in ug/g were 21.98-43.97 (30.14) for Co, 353.77-570.60 (507.01) for Mn, 34.56-69.13 (44.98) for Ni, 6676.023-7398.385 (7147.05) for Fe, 7.565-27.739 (14.04) for Cu and 27.41-58.48 (43.04) for Zn. Grain size analyses with total organic carbon have been also determined in that sediment. It is noted that the contamination factors in the investigated sediment were 1.69-3.38 for Co, 0.62-0.70 for Mn, 0.90-1.81 for Ni, 0.142-0.157 for Fe, 0.37-1.38 for Cu and less than one in Zn. In general, the contamination factors of trace metals in the present study could be arranged as following Co>Ni>Mn>Cu>Zn>Fe. Results were also compared with earlier studies carried out on trace metals content of fresh and coastal water in the region including the study area. Diversified natural and anthropogenic inputs may have provided the sources of this pollution. Further studies are needed to characterize the source, fate; biogeochemical processes and impacts of these trace metals on coastal habitats and marine life of the region.

Petrogenesis of sedimentary ironstones in Jabal Sanam structure, Southern Iraq.

Z.A. Abdul Naby; A.A. Al-Fregi; B.H. Soltan

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 93-105

A total of (16) ironstone samples were collected from surface exposures of Jabal Sanam. These samples were firstly described in the field, and then ten thin sections prepared for microscopic study. X-ray, U.V. visible and atomic absorption was employed .The available ironstones show a wide spread distribution over Jabal Sanam structure mainly in the eastern and southeastern parts. Their variety colors; brown to reddish brown, yellow to reddish yellow, depending upon the Fe+³ Oxides State the content characterize them. The ironstones under study have high percent of Fe+³ about 52%, the obtained X-ray and ultraviolet diffraction patterns and atomic absorption revealed the dominancy of Hematite mineral. It’s believed that these ironstones originated by the decomposition of Precambrian basement: basic, ultra basic igneous and metamorphic rocks by the action of hydrothermal solutions that accompanied the peircement of Jabal Sanam.

Ecological studies of three West Algerian rivers: The Habra reservoir and the Mactaa canal.

K. Benson-Evans; R. Antoine; P. Randerson; Muhammad S. Al-Asadi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 107-121

Limnological studies of Habra Watershed were carried out on aquatic bodies of the coastal north-west Algeria. The Habra-Sigg (Habra Watershed) forms a large basin in which two sampling sites were chosen, the Mactaa Canal, a canal with connections to the sea and the Habra Reservoir. Samples were taken monthly for two years (1986-1988). Air temperatures were ranged from 14°C to 31°C and water temperatures from 10°C to 30°C. Fluctuations at Mactaa Canal were more than those of Habra Reservoir regarding hydrogen ion concentration (6.8-8.1), oxygen percentage saturation (54-125), biological oxygen demand (0.8-11.8mg l-1), total residue (3.39-25.3 mg l-1), volatile matter (1.03-16.95 mg l-1), chloride (1.35-10.40g l-1), ammonium-nitrogen (5.2-26.3 μg l-1) and silicate-silicon (1.8-5.1mg l-1), whereas fluctuations were similar for current velocity (CV), water turbidity (50-95mgl-1), electrical conductivity (2.6-10.22mScm-2), dissolved oxygen (4.8-11.8 mg l-1), suspended solids (20.4-84.5mg l-1), dissolved organic matter (3.53-21.76 PV(4h)mg l-1), fixed total residue (2.65-12.49 mgl-1), nitrite-nitrogen (0.07-1.03 mg l-1), nitrate-nitrogen (3.1-8.6 mgl-1) and phosphate-phosphorus (1.1-7.2mg l-1). Magnesium hardness at Habra Reservoir (1.70 mg l-1 as CaCO3) and at Mactaa Canal (1.57 mg l-1 as CaCO3). Calcium hardness and total hardness values were similar at both sites (0.7 and 2.4 mg l-1 as CaCO3 respectively).

Oxygen consumption of the copepod Apocyclops dengizicus from a pool at Garmat-Ali.

H.K. Ahmed

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 123-133

The oxygen consumption of the copepod Apocyclops dengezicus was estimated by a modified Winkler method at three temperatures; 15, 25 and 30 °C. There was no apparent relation between oxygen consumption and temperature (0.86, 0.69 and 1.48 mg O/ind./day, respectively). This was also the case for the metabolism. The Q10 values were 0.80 and 4.29 at 15 - 25 and 25- 30 °C, respectively.

The effect of temperatures on the feeding of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite amphitrite Darwin in the Garmat-Ali River, Basrah, Iraq.

M.H. Ali; S.D. Salman; I.M. Abdul-Sahib

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 135-146

Feeding and assimilation rates of the barnacle Balanus. a. amphitrite has been studied using two types of food; the alga Chlorella sp. and the flesh of the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea for the period from August 1995 to January 1996 at four temperatures 15, 20, 25, 30 ºC. There were significant differences in food consumptions at different temperatures. Food consumption rates were ranging between 0.0414 to 0.3209 mg DW/ind./day for the alga and between 0.1331 to 1.5553 mg DW/ind./day for the clam, and the assimilations efficiency were77.6 % and %85.9, respectively. There were positive relationships between food consumption and fecal production with the dry weight of the barnacle.