ISSN: 1815-2058

Volume 22, Issue 2

Volume 22, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2007, Page 147-253


Impact of toluene on ionic regulation and oxygen consumption of freshwater crab Sesarma boulengeri (Calman).

Raja M. Al-Yaseen; Amna A. Hashim; Sumaya M. Ahmed

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 147-166

The present study has been conducted to explain the effect of sub lethal concentrations of toluene on some physiological aspects of freshwater crab S. boulengeri including oxygen consumption rate, water and ionic regulation, bioaccumulation and histopathological effects. Three sub lethal concentrations (2.5, 5.5 and 10.5 ppm) of toluene were used to study their effects during long term exposure (14 days) under 28° C. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between oxygen consumption rate and toluene concentration. Oxygen consumption rate reached to 0.223 mg O2/g/h in 10.5 ppm toluene. Body water content showed an increase to 71.17% in 10.5 ppm toluene. Ionic regulation also affected by toluene. A significant decrease (P<0.01) was recorded in the level of Na+ in the haemolymph, as it reached to 245.5 mmol/l in 10.5 ppm toluene. While K+ concentration in the lymph showed a significant increase (P<0.01) to 12.41 mmol/l comparing with the control. Bioaccumulation of toluene in the gills in 5.5 ppm toluene reached to 2.98 mg/g dry wt. during the 3rd day of exposure. While it decreased to 1.34 mg/g dry wt. during the 11th day of exposure. Histopathological changes include swelling, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy in gill filaments. Recovery data after 4 days of transfer to clean water showed that the physiological parameters studied (oxygen consumption rate, water and ionic regulation) did not return to the normal levels.

The physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city, Iraq.

W.F. Hassan

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 167-179

The physio-chemical characteristics and chemical composition of the Sawa lake water, well water, and Al-Atshan river water (branch of the Euphrates river) were studied by determination of the ionic composition of samples water. The hydrochemical composition indication the type of water in Sawa was Mg- chloride. Sawa water shows Hydrochemical characteristics similar to Al-Atshan river rather than the well near by or sea water .Its water could be subject to mixing with fresh and groundwater or marine origin water. The water in the lake and those in Euphrates are similar in hydrochemical characters moreover than is a similarity between Sawa water and Euphrates river. It is based on to be terrestrial water exchangeable with the marine origin sediments. Sawa water is over saturated with calcite, dolomite, arogonit ,gypsum and anhydrite minerals.

Recent Ostracoda in the Cuddalore estuary, East coast of Tamil Nadu, India.

H. Achyuthan; A. Hameed

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 181-195

The paper reports for the first time Holocene estuary Ostracoda assemblages from three localities in Cuddalore east coast of Tamil Nadu, Chennai, India. In all, thirteen taxa recorded and illustrated. Of these, Keijella reticulata, Actinocythereis scutigera, Loxoconcha mandviensis, Propontocypris (Propontocypris) crocata are being reported for the first time from India in Cuddalore.

Morphological and histological study for some sensory organs in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

Azal N. Al-Nusear; S.A.Hussein; A.A.Sawad

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 197-207

A total of fifty specimens of common carp Cyprinus carpo L. were obtained to study the olfactory Organs, lateral line canal and the neuromasts. Common carp has one pair of nostrils in each side of the head, Olfactory organ has an oval shape with 28 olfactory lamella arranged inside the nasal pouch and has a finger-like shaped. Every lamella contains sensory, supporting and basal cells. In addition to six cephalic canals in the lateral line at the head, there was a trunk canal that extends at the same line until the caudal peduncle, the trunk lateral line canal posses 35 scales .There are two types of neuromasts, the external neuromasts that aggregated around the eyes, upper jaw and lower jaw. In addition to the external neuromasts there are pit organ, the neuromasts consists of two layers of cells, the supporting and the sensory cell layer. At the external neuromasts and pit organ there was the cupulae which absent at the neuromast of lateral line.

Some features of the physical oceanography in Iraqi marine waters.

N.A. Hussian; S.S. Abdullah; A.A. Al- Mahdi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 209-222

Iraqi marine water is the major (important) estuarine part at the north part of the Arabian Gulf. The harmonic constituents of tide M2, S2, K1, and O1 in Outer Bar station was found of order of 0.66, 0.18, 0.46 and 0.26 m. respectively. The type of tide is mixed, dominant semi-diurnal with range between 1 –3 m. The salinity values (4‰ – 39‰) are affected heavily by the rate of the Shatt Al-Arab discharge and the state of tide. Water temperature fluctuates during winter and summer, and it is reaching 12.5˚c to 33.5C˚ respectively. Thermocline and halocline developed according to the season and state of tide. Different types of currents were effecting their water (tidal current, coriolis force, wind current, density current and Arabian Gulf current, Generally ,tidal current in the area are strong and reaching 0.8 -2 m/sec.

Some biological aspects of larvae and fry of Bunnei (Barbus sharpeyi) and common carp (Cyprinus carpi) in earthern pond.

G. Adnan; Kh.H. Hasooni; M.A. Al- Mukhtar; J.H. Salah; A.A. Jabir

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 223-237

This study was showed Some biologycal aspects of the first stages of Bunnei (Barbus sharpeyi) and Common carp (Cyprinus carpi) in the earth pond. These two species was produced in Marine Science Freshwater hatchery. The Length-Weight relationship for Barbus sharpeyi W= 0.0111 L2.9662 and for Common carp W= 0-05 L2.9524The average relative growth reached its highest value for (4890) and (8275) for Bunnei and Common carp respectively. The highest value for specific growth was (14.7) and (14.4) for Bunnei and common carp respectively. The highest average weight for common carp was (3930) mg and highest average of length (63) mm. while The highest average weight for Buni larvae was (1470) mg and highest average of length (53) mm after 42 days.

Nutritional value of some Iraqi fishes.

A.Y.J. Al-Saraji; A.H.K. Al-Selemi; A.A. Mahdi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 239-253

This study was carried out to measure the nutritive and colorific value from different fish. ie, Barbus sharpeyi, B. luteus, Cyprinus caspis, Liza dussumeiri and Tenualosa ilisha. The protein content was varied from the lowest value of (16.40 %) in C. carpio up to the highest value (20.20 %) in B. sharpeyi. fat content was ranged from 1.98% in B. luteus to 11.50 % in T. ilisha. While the moisture content was ranged between (65.9 – 79.6%) and the Ash content were varied between (0.89 – 2.3 %). The energy was ranged from lowest value of 92.40 k.cal./100g. in C. carpio up to the highest value 184.70 k.cal./100g. in T. ilisha .The mineral content was of (K, P, Mg, Ca) in T. ilisha and L. dussumeiri were enough to the requirements of the human being. While all the fishes supply partial requirement of Zn for the human being ages. The ratio of energy was calculated from different fish for the need of the different human being ages, it found that the lowest value (2.71 %) was for C. carpio and the highest value (14.20%) was for T. ilisha for youth (15-18) and child (1-3) years respectively. Marine fishes were characterized by a high energy value especially T. ilisha. Which contains lipid percentage.