ISSN: 1815-2058

Volume 21, Issue 2

Volume 21, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2006, Page 149-317

Sodium chloride tolerance of grass carp, fingerlings, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val. 1844).

I.J. Al-Shami; H.A. Saoud

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 149-153

Nine concentrations (1.5, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 17 ‰) of NaCl have been used to test the salinity tolerance of grass carp fingerlings Ctenopharyngodon idella. It has been found that salinity 9‰ was lethal to the fingerlings, (Lt50 48h), while all the fingerlings survived in salinity 8‰ during the experimental period (168h.). the present study showed that fingerlings can survive in salinity as higher as 8 ‰.

The effect of aqueous extract of fruit peel Punica granatum on a newly recorded ciliate parasite Tetrahymena corlissi (Hoffman and Glenn, 1978).

J.A.A. Bannai; H.M. Jarallah; M.A.A. Bannai; S.A.M. Al-Daraji

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 155-161

The effect of aqueous extract of fruit peel Punica granatum was studies against the activity and growth of protozoa ciliate parasite Tetrahymena corlissi that infected the eggs and eyes of Cyprinus carpio and Barbus sharpyi cultural fishes. This parasite is consider as a new record in Iraq. The parasites isolated from hatchery of Marine Science Centre.

Microbial quality of southern Iraqi marshland water and sediments after rehabilitation in 2003 and it’s suitability for different uses.

F.J. Al-Imarah; F.J. Farhan; E.A. Al-Imarah; A.M.R. Al-Taee

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 163-173

Microbial quality for water and sediments of Southern Iraqi Marshlands has been investigated after rehabilitation during 2003. The study was conducted during the period 2003-2004 in which both bacteria and fungi were detected. The study revealed that for bacteria detection it was found that some studied locations were polluted with presumptive Salmonella and Shigella while the presence of presumptive Staphylococcus indicated an evidence of possible food poisoning. Different fungal species including imperfect fungi, few species of Ascomycetes, and some species of the family Saprolegniaceae have been isolated from certain sites in marshes especially in spring, while dermatophytes were not detected in all sites. It is concluded that water is unsuitable for drinking or agricultural purposes.

Ecological studies of three West Algerian rivers: The river Cheliff and its tributary, the river Mina.

K. Benson-Evans; S. Antoine; P. Randerson; M.S. Al-Asadi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 175-196

This paper is part of a programme of ecological studies of NW Algeria coast. Monthly samples were taken during 1986-1988 at two sites; Relizan on the river Cheliff, the largest river in Algeria, and Mostaganem, on the River Mina. Water temperatures at River Cheliff were slightly lower than at the river Mina, as the former is more shaded by trees. Current velocity, light intensity, pH electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand (BOD) was measured. These parameters showed spatial and temporal changes. The two sites were well oxygenated. The pH ranges from 6-2-8.2. Highest current velocity recorded in March, however lowest light intensity coincided with period of high turbidity in January and March. Other ecological parameters including dissolved organic matter (DOM) suspended solids (SS), total residue (TR). Fixed total residue (FTR), volatile matter (VM), chloride content, inorganic nitrogen content and orthophosphate were also considered. Suspended solids negatively correlated with turbidity. Averages TR, FTR and VM were higher at river Cheliff than at river Mina. Correlation coefficients among ecological parameters studied were calculated.

Some mechanical properties of sandy gypseferous soils in Rumaila – Khor Al-Zubair area, southern Iraq.

S.K. Kadhum; M.J. Kadhum; A.M.H. Al-Marsoumi

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 197-211

Six gypseferous soil samples were collected from Rumaila to Khor Al-Zubair areas, Didibba Desert West of Basrah city, Southern Iraq. These soil are gypseous in nature with an average gypsum content of 15.5 % w/w. The mineralogical analyses revealed that they are consisting of quartz, gypsum, carbonate, and feldspar. The grain size analysis showed that the sand fraction form more than 80% of soil samples understudy. Several geotechnical properties were determined. The testing program comprises the determination of the effect of the different gypsum contents on the shear strength parameters; cohesion and internal friction angle of the gypseferous soils under consideration. Furthermore, the testing program exhibits the cohesion increases as gypsum contents increases up to 20 % then decreases at 30 %. The results indicate that the improvement and deterioration of cohesion and shearing strength of soils are a result of the gypsum dual role, firstly bonding the soil particles, causing the and soil enhancement (up to 20 % added gypsum), and secondly causing the flocculation of soil particles leading to the deterioration (More than 20 % added gypsum) of cohesion and shear strength of the gypseferous soils.

Morphological and histological study of the some sensory organs in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

A.N. Al-Nusear; S.A. Hussein; A.A. Sawad

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 213-223

A total of fifty specimens of common carp Cyprinus carpo L. were obtained to study the olfactory Organs, lateral line canal and the neuromasts. Common carp has one pair of nostrils in each side of the head, Olfactory organ has an oval shape with 28 olfactory lamella arranged inside the nasal pouch and has a finger-like shaped. Every lamella contains sensory, supporting and basal cells. In addition to six cephalic canals in the lateral line at the head, there was a trunk canal that extends at the same line until the caudal peduncle, the trunk lateral line canal posses 35 scales .There are two types of neuromasts, the external neuromasts that aggregated around the eyes, upper jaw and lower jaw. In addition to the external neuromasts there are pit organ, the neuromasts consists of two layers of cells, the supporting and the sensory cell layer. At the external neuromasts and pit organ there was the cupulae which absent at the neuromast of lateral line.

Growth of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) under different diet conditions.

I.M. Abdul-Sahib; S.G. Ajeel

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 225-235

Samples of Daphnia magna were collected from a ponds in Basrah. A successful culture was built in the laboratory using glass aquarium. The animals were fed on a diet of sheep manure, yeast and wheat bran under laboratory conditions. The results of this study indicate that the sheep manure seems to be the best diet for this species. The mean lengths of adults were 3.80, 3.42 and 3.21 mm. in sheep manure, yeast and wheat bran respectively. The maximum life span were 69, 47 and 40 days respectively. The number of preadult instars was between 4 – 7 while that of the adult seems to be about 10 instars. The duration of each instar was 2 – 5 days.

The effect of cobalt and nickel on the growth of some blue green algae.

M.S. Al-Asadi; K.K. Hreeb

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 237-243

Heavy metals (Cobalt and Nickel) were treated with two Cyanophyta species; Oscillatoria amoena and Rivularia sp. at different concentrations media (5, 10, 20 and 40 ppm of both elements). The effect of Nickel on the growth rate of the two algae was more than that of Cobalt. All concentrations of Ni-ion had fatal effect on the growth rates of the two algae, while the Rivularia sp. could have ability to withstand the effect of this ion. The alga Rivularia sp. had no growth at the concentration of 20 and 40 ppm of the two metals.

Histological study of general structure and mechanisms of secretion of the pedal mucus glands in the snail Lymnaea auricularia (L.).

S.A.A. Hassoon

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 245-256

General histological structure and mechanisms of secretion of the pedal mucus glands in the snail Lymnaea auricularia (L.) are studied. The glands are composed of mucigenous units which include: mucigenous cells, mucigenous unions and mucigenous segments. These units are arranged in two zones: aggregation zone and distribution zone .The aggregation zone is mainly composed of mucigenous cells and mucigenous unions which are densely packed, while the distribution zone comprises loosely distributed units which are mainly formed of mucigenous segments. The mucigenous segments are motile parts separated either from mucigenous unions or from mucigenous cells .They move towards the surface epithelium of the foot. During this movement the segments undergo continuous changes in their structure and size. They, then, insert themselves between cells of the foot epithelium and finally discharge their components on the foot surface.

Monthly fluctuations of catch rates of three goatfishes species from Khor Al-Amayh, Northwest Arabian Gulf.

F.M. Mutlak; A.R.M. Mohamed

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 257-270

The monthly fluctuations of catches per unit of effort of three goatfishes species from the Khor Al-Amayh, Northwest Arabian Gulf were studied from August 1999 to July 2000. The catches were varied from 11.55-32.50 Kg/hr for total catches, 1.90-7.15 Kg/hr for commercial fishes, 0.45-2.05 Kg/hr for the genus Upeneus, 0.45-1.50 Kg/hr for U. sulphureus, 0.10-0.45 Kg/hr for U. bensasi and 0.11-0.20 Kg/hr for U. tragula. The highest catch rates were recorded in summer and autumn. U. bensasi and U. tragula constituted 0.7% and 0.3% of the total catch, respectively, and disappeared from the catch during autumn and winter, whereas, U. sulphureus formed 13.6%. Water temperatures were ranged from 12.0Co in January to 38.7Co in July. Salinity was varied from 22.5 %o in March to 41.2 %o in August, however the light transparent fluctuated from 100 cm in March to 340cm in June. in which good positive correlations between the catches and the water temperature, salinity and light transparent were obtained. There are positive correlations between the catches and each of water temperature, salinity and light transparent.

Monitoring the quality of Silurus triostegus (Heckel, 1843) fresh and smoked stocked at room temperature.

A.K. Nueama; S.M.H. Al-Shatty; M.A. Jasim

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 271-299

This study was undertaken to determine the chemical composition for fresh and smoked catfish Silurus triostegus (Heckel 1843) and calorific value as well as microbiological tests, some minerals (Na, K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, I, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Pb and Cd) had been determined in addition to study of the changes which happened through some indices for quality and sensory evaluation. The percentage of protein, fat, moisture and ash were (15.49, 3.39, 80.04 and 1.07) for fresh fish (23.05, 2.68, 72.13 and 2.13) for smoked fish in the first day of preservation period respectively. Calorific values were (92.50, 116.32) Kcal/100gm of fish flesh for fresh and smoked fish respectively. The total bacterial count, coliform bacteria count, yeasts and moulds count were (28 x 103, 900, 0, 0) (CFU/gm) and (68 x 102, 280, 0, 0) (CFU/gm) for fresh and smoked fish respectively. The amount of minerals in smoked fish was greater than that fresh fish. The chemical indices of quality for fresh and smoked fish which represented total volatile nitrogen base (TVNB) was (14.10, 25.40) (mg N/100 gm fish) respectively at zero time. The pH was (6.50, 6.61) respectively at first day, while Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) number was (0.280, 0.402) mg malonaldehyde/Kg fish at first day. The percentage of free fatty acids (FFA) and acid value (AV) were (0.395, 0.786 and 1.081, 4.141) respectively at first day. Finally this study showed that fresh fish stayed acceptable five days while smoked fish still acceptable nine days for human consumption after that the quality of fish was deterioration at room temperature (25˚C).

Application of electrical resistivity method in ground water and bearing stratum determination in selected location, Basrah University, Garmat Ali.

W.R. Mutasher

Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 301-317

The vertical resistivity investigation is carried out with Schlumbercher arrangement using on Basrah university site which locate in north of Basrah city at Garmat-Ali town. The survey is achieved by (5) Stations distributed over investigated area (university) that up to (21m) depth where is recorded values of bulk resistivity (R) measured (ohm) with device of measurement of Electrical Resistivity (ABEM Terrameter SAS 300B). The results of the Resistivity values is interpreted owing to the complete matching, also, a computer program named (VES) for creating five of models is applied. The result models show third layer curves in (2, 3, 4, 5) positions, and second layer curve type model (ρ2>ρ1) in (1) position. These plotted models illusraid the electrical specific resistivity is generally values low. The first recorded diagnosed layer represents a depth of water table in university site, while the second diagnosed layer is a depth level of sub stratum (Soft) for the mean cohesive stratum that extend form ground surface, also the stratum of bearing capacity is determined at (21.3m) in (2) station.